October 07, 2022

Top 20 AWS MSK Interview Questions and Answers


                    Developers and DevOps managers can easily run Apache Kafka applications and Kafka Connect connectors on AWS without having to become experts in Apache Kafka administration thanks to Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK), an AWS streaming data service that manages Apache Kafka infrastructure and operations. Streaming data application development is sped up by Amazon MSK's built-in AWS connectors, enterprise-grade security capabilities, and ability to administer, maintain, and grow Apache Kafka clusters.





Ques: 1). What is streaming data in AWS MSK?  

Answer:

The answer is that streaming data is a constant stream of brief recordings or events—typically only a few kilobytes in size—produced by tens of thousands of equipment, gadgets, websites, and software programmes. A wide range of data, including log files produced by users of your mobile or web applications, e-commerce purchases, in-game player activity, information from social networks, trading information from financial trading floors, geospatial services, security logs, metrics, and telemetry from connected devices or instrumentation in data centres are all examples of streaming data. Continuously gathering, processing, and delivering streaming data is made simple for you by streaming data services like Amazon MSK and Amazon Kinesis Data Streams.




 
Ques: 2). What does Amazon MSK really do as open-source service?

Answer:

Apache Kafka open-source versions may be easily installed and deployed on AWS with excellent availability and security thanks to Amazon MSK. Additionally, Amazon MSK provides AWS service integrations without the operational burden of maintaining an Apache Kafka cluster. While the service supports the setup, provisioning, AWS integrations, and ongoing maintenance of Apache Kafka clusters, Amazon MSK enables you to use open-source versions of Apache Kafka.




Ques: 3). What are Apache Kafka's fundamental ideas?

Answer:

Topics are how Apache Kafka stores records. Consumers read records from subjects, and data producers write records to topics. In Apache Kafka, each record is made up of a key, a value, a timestamp, and occasionally header metadata. Apache Kafka divides topics into replicas that are replicated over several brokers, or nodes. A highly available cluster of brokers running Apache Kafka may be created by placing brokers in different AWS availability zones. When it comes to managing state for services communicating with an Apache Kafka cluster, Apache Kafka depends on Apache ZooKeeper.



Ques: 4). How can I get access to the Apache Kafka broker logs?

Answer:

For provisioned clusters, broker log delivery is an option. Broker logs may be sent to Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose, Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), and Amazon CloudWatch Logs. Among other places, Kinesis Data Firehose supports Amazon OpenSearch Service.



Ques: 5). How can I keep track of consumer lag?

Answer:

The standard collection of metrics that Amazon MSK delivers to Amazon CloudWatch for all clusters includes topic-level consumer latency indicators. For these metrics to be obtained, no further setup is needed. You may also obtain consumer latency data at the partition level for provisioned clusters (partition dimension). On your cluster, turn on enhanced monitoring (PER PARTITION PER TOPIC). As an alternative, you may use a Prometheus server to activate Open Monitoring on your cluster and collect partition-level metrics from the cluster's brokers. Consumer latency measurements, like other Kafka metrics, are accessible through port 11001.


 
Ques: 6). How does Amazon MSK handle data replication?

Answer:

To replicate data between brokers, Amazon MSK leverages the leader-follower replication feature of Apache Kafka. Clusters with multi-AZ replication may be easily deployed using Amazon MSK, and you have the option to apply a specific replication technique for each topic. Every replication option by default deploys and isolates leader and follower brokers according to the replication technique chosen. A cluster of three brokers will be created by Amazon MSK (one broker in three AZs in a region), for instance, if you choose a three AZ broker replication strategy with one broker per AZ cluster. By default (unless you choose to override the topic replication factor), the topic replication factor will also be three.



Ques: 7). MSK Serverless: What is it?

Answer:

You may operate Apache Kafka clusters using MSK Serverless, a cluster type for Amazon MSK, without having to worry about managing computation and storage capacity. You just pay for the data volume that you stream and keep when using MSK Serverless, which allows you to execute your apps without needing to setup, configure, or optimise clusters.



 
Ques: 8). What security features are available with MSK Serverless?

Answer:

Using service-managed keys obtained from the AWS Key Management Service, MSK Serverless encrypts all data in transit and at rest (KMS). AWS PrivateLink is used by clients to establish private connections to MSK Serverless, shielding your traffic from the public internet. IAM Access Control, another feature of MSK Serverless, allows you to control client authorization and client authentication for Apache Kafka resources like topics.



 
Ques: 9). What do I require to provision a cluster of Amazon MSK?

Answer:

With each cluster you build for provided clusters, you must provision broker instances and broker storage. Storage throughput for storage volumes is an optional provision that may be used to expand I/O without the need for additional brokers. Nodes for Apache ZooKeeper are already included with each cluster you establish, so you don't need to supply them. You just construct a cluster as a resource for serverless clusters.


 

Ques: 10). How does Amazon MSK handle authorization?

Answer:

If you are using IAM Access Control, Amazon MSK authorises actions based on the policies you create and its own authorizer. Apache Kafka employs access control lists (ACLs) for authorisation if you are utilising SASL/SCRAM or TLS certificate authentication. You must enable client authentication using SASL/SCRAM or TLS certificates in order to activate ACLs.


 

Ques: 11). What is the maximum data throughput capacity supported by MSK Serverless?

Answer:

Up to 200 MBps of write throughput and 400 MBps of read capacity per cluster are offered by MSK Serverless. Additionally, MSK Serverless allots up to 5 MBps of immediate write capacity and 10 MBps of instant read capacity per partition to guarantee enough throughput availability for every partition in a cluster.



 
Ques: 12). What high availability measures does MSK Serverless take?

Answer:

When a partition is created, MSK Serverless makes two copies of it and stores them in various availability zones. To provide high availability, MSK serverless automatically finds and restores malfunctioning backend resources.
 




Ques: 13). How can I set up my first MSK cluster on Amazon?

Answer:

Using the AWS administration console or the AWS SDKs, you can quickly establish your first cluster. To construct an Amazon MSK cluster, first choose an AWS region in the Amazon MSK dashboard. Give your cluster a name, decide the Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) you want to use to run it, and select the subnets for each AZ. You may select a broker instance type, the number of brokers per AZ, and the amount of storage per broker when constructing a provisioned cluster.




Ques: 14). Does Amazon MSK run in an Amazon VPC?

Answer:

Yes, Amazon MSK always operating inside an Amazon VPC that is overseen by the Amazon MSK service. When the cluster is configured, the Amazon MSK resources will be accessible to your own Amazon VPC, subnet, and security group. Elastic network interfaces (ENIs), which connect IP addresses from your VPC to your Amazon MSK resources, ensure that all network traffic stays within the AWS network and is not by default available to the internet.



Ques: 15). Between my Apache Kafka clients and the Amazon MSK service, is data secured in transit?

Answer:

Yes, only clusters established using the CLI or AWS Management Console have in-transit encryption configured by default to TLS. For clients to communicate with clusters utilising TLS encryption, further setup is needed. By choosing the TLS/plaintext or plaintext options, you may modify the default encryption configuration for supplied clusters. Study up on MSK Encryption.


 
Ques: 16). How much do the various CloudWatch monitoring levels cost?

Answer:

The size of your Apache Kafka cluster and the monitoring level you choose will determine how much it costs to monitor your cluster using Amazon CloudWatch. Amazon CloudWatch has a free tier and charges monthly based on metrics.


 
Ques: 17). Which monitoring tools are compatible with Prometheus' Open Monitoring?

Answer:

Open Monitoring is compatible with tools like Datadog, Lenses, New Relic, Sumo Logic, or a Prometheus server that are made to read from Prometheus exporters.



 
Ques: 18). Are my clients' connections to an Amazon MSK cluster secure?

Answer:

By default, a private connection between your clients in your VPC and the Amazon MSK cluster is the only way data may be generated or consumed from an Amazon MSK cluster. But if you enable public access for your Amazon MSK cluster and use the public bootstrap-brokers string to connect to it, the connection—while authenticated, permitted, and encrypted—will no longer be regarded as private. If you enable public access, it is advised that you setup the cluster's security groups to include inbound TCP rules that permit public access from your trusted IP address and to make these rules as stringent as feasible.


 

Ques: 19). Is it possible to move data from my current Apache Kafka cluster to Amazon MSK?

Answer:

Yes, you may duplicate data from clusters onto an Amazon MSK cluster using third-party tools or open-source tools like MirrorMaker, supported by Apache Kafka. To assist you with completing a migration, Amazon provides an Amazon MSK migration lab.


 
Ques: 20). How do I handle data processing for my MSK Serverless cluster?

Answer:

You can process data in your MSK Serverless cluster topics using any technologies that are Apache Kafka compliant. MSK Serverless interacts with AWS Lambda for event processing and Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics for stateful stream processing using Apache Flink. Kafka Connect sink connectors may be used to transmit data to any desired location.
 



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