April 19, 2022

Top 20 AWS Aurora Interview Questions and Answers


AWS Aurora is an Amazon cloud-based managed database service. This is one of the most extensively utilised data storage and processing services for low latency and transactional data. The AWS aurora service combines the benefits of open source databases such as MySQL and PostgreSQL with enterprise-level dependability and scalability. For efficient data availability, it uses a clustered technique with data replication in the AWS availability zone. It is much faster than native MySQL and PostgreSQL databases, and it requires little server maintenance. It has a large storage capacity and can expand up to 64 Terabytes of database size for enterprise use.

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Ques. 1): What is Amazon Aurora and how does it work?


AWS Aurora is a cloud-based relational database that combines the performance and availability of typical enterprise databases with the ease of use and low cost of open source databases. It's five times faster than a typical MySQL database, and three times faster than a standard PostgreSQL database.

AWS Aurora helps provide commercial databases with security, availability, and dependability. It is fully managed by AWS Relational Database Service (RDS), which automates time-consuming administration activities including hardware provisioning, database setup, patching, and backups. It's a fault-tolerant, self-healing storage system that auto-scales up to 128TB per database instance and provides high performance and availability with up to 15 low-latency read replicas, point-in-time recovery, continuous backup to Amazon S3, and replication across three Availability Zones, among other features (AZs).

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Ques. 2): What are Amazon Aurora DB clusters, and what do they do?


An Amazon Aurora DB cluster is made up of one or more database instances and a cluster volume that stores the data for those databases.

An Aurora cluster volume is a virtual database storage volume that spans multiple Availability Zones and contains a copy of the DB cluster data in each. There are two sorts of database instances in an Aurora DB cluster:

Primary DB instance: Supports read and write operations and handles all data modifications to the cluster volume. There is only one primary DB instance in each Aurora DB cluster.

Aurora Replica: It connects to the same storage disc as the primary DB instance and only enables read operations. Each Aurora DB cluster can contain up to 15 Aurora Replicas in addition to the original DB instance. Aurora automatically switches to an Aurora Replica if the primary DB instance becomes unavailable. The Aurora Replicas' failover priority can be set. Aurora Replicas can also transfer read workloads from the primary DB instance.

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Ques. 3): What are the benefits of using Aurora?


The following are some of Aurora's benefits:

Enterprise-level security: Because Aurora is an Amazon service, you may be confident in its security and use the IAM capabilities.

Enterprise-level availability: It is ensured by multiple replications of database instances across several zones.

Enterprise-level scalability: With Aurora serverless, you can configure your database to scale up and down dynamically in response to application demand.

Enterprise-level performance: Open-source DB's simplicity and cost-effectiveness.

Aurora is interoperable with MySQL and PostgreSQL at the enterprise level. If your present application is built on MySQL or PostgreSQL, you can move it or utilise Amazon RDS to convert your database to Aurora Engine.

AWS Management Console: Amazon Management Console is easy to use with click and drag features to quickly set-up your Aurora Cluster.

Maintenance: Aurora has almost zero server maintenance. 5 times faster than MySQL and 3 times faster than PostgreSQL.

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Ques. 4): What are Aurora's advantages?


The following are some of the advantages of AWS Aurora:

High Performance and Scalability – We can quickly scale up and down our database deployment from a smaller to a larger instance.

Fully Managed - Because Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) manages Aurora, we don't have to bother about database management activities like hardware provisioning, software patching, setup, configuration, or backups.

Highly Secure - Aurora is very secure, with various levels of security for your database.

Support for Database Migrations to the Cloud - Aurora is utilised as an attractive target for database migrations to the cloud.

MySQL and PostgreSQL Compatible - Aurora is entirely compatible with existing MySQL and PostgreSQL open source databases, and support for new releases is added on a regular basis.

High Availability and Durability - Aurora's high availability and durability make it simple to recover from physical storage failures.

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Ques. 5): How Aurora Works?


Primary DB and Aurora replica DB, as well as a cluster volume to handle the data for those DB instances, make up an Aurora DB cluster. Aurora cluster volume is a virtual database storage volume that spans multiple Availability Zones in order to better support global applications. The DB cluster data is duplicated in each zone.

All read and write operations are performed over cluster volume in the primary database. Each Aurora cluster will have one primary database instance.

It's just a copy of the primary database instance whose sole purpose is to provide data, i.e. solely read operations. To provide high availability in all Zones, a primary DB instance can have up to 15 replicas. In a fail-safe circumstance, Aurora will switch to a replica when a Primary DB is not accessible. Replicas aid in the reduction of read workload on the primary database. For replicas, you can set the priority of failover.

Aurora can have a multi-master cluster as well. All DB instances in a multi-master setup will be able to read and write data. In AWS language, these are known as reader and writer DB instances, and we can call this a multi-master replication.

You can also set up Amazon S3 to keep a backup of your database. Even in the worst-case scenario, where the entire cluster is down, your database remains safe.

You can utilise Aurora Serverless to automatically start scaling and shutting down the database to fit application demand for an unpredictable workload.

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Ques. 6): What are the advantages of using Amazon RDS with MySQL?


Amazon RDS for MySQL has the following advantages:

Easy, managed deployments - : Simple, managed deployments are used to quickly launch and connect to a production-ready MySQL database.

High availability and read replicas - High availability and read replicas are utilised to ensure that our MySQL databases are available and durable.

Fast, dependable storage - utilised to provide two SSD-backed MySQL database storage alternatives.

Monitoring and metrics - Amazon RDS Enhanced Monitoring gives you access to more than 50 CPU, RAM, file system, and disc I/O metrics.

Backup and recovery - utilised to ensure that our MySQL database instance can be recovered.

Isolation and security – used to ensure that our MySQL databases are kept secure.

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Ques. 7): What is the relationship between Aurora and Amazon RDS Engines?


The following points will demonstrate how Amazon RDS' standard engines, such as MySQL and PostgreSQL, interact with Aurora:

When creating new database servers with Amazon RDS, you can select Aurora as a database engine.

If you're acquainted with Amazon RDS, Aurora should be simple to set up. You can utilise the Amazon RDS administration console to set up Aurora clusters, as well as the CLI commands and API to perform database maintenance activities like backup, recovery, and repair.

Aurora's automatic clustering, replication, and other administration operations are controlled over the entire cluster of database servers, not just one instance, allowing you to manage big MySQL and PostgreSQL servers efficiently and at a cheap cost.

Data from Amazon RDS for MySQL and PostgreSQL can be replicated or imported into Aurora using snapshots. Another feature is push-button migration, which may be used to migrate your Amazon RDS MySQL and PostgreSQL databases to Aurora.

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Ques. 8): What are Endpoints and How Do I Use Them?


When a user connects to an Aurora cluster, an endpoint is a combination of host name and port.

Endpoints are divided into four categories:

Cluster Endpoint: Cluster Endpoint is used to connect to the current primary database instance and to assist with write operations.

Custom endpoint: A custom endpoint is used to represent a set of DB instances selected by the user.

Reader Endpoint: Reader Endpoint is a read-only endpoint used to connect Aurora replicas.

Instance Endpoint: Instance Endpoint is used to connect to a specific database instance and to diagnose problems with capacity or performance in that instance.

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Ques. 9): How can we associate a IAM Role with an Aurora Cluster using CloudFormation?



  Description: You must run this awscli command after the stack is created and may also need to reboot the cluster/instance.

  Value: !Join [" ", [

    "aws rds add-role-to-db-cluster --db-cluster-identifier",

    !Ref AuroraSandboxCluster,


    !GetAtt AuroraS3Role.Arn,


    !FindInMap [ AccountNameMap, !Ref AccountNamespace, profile ]


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Ques. 10): What are AWS Aurora's limitations?


If you need additional features or have an older version of MySQL, you won't be able to use it because it only supports MySQL-5.6.10. Amazon will add new MySQL functionality to Aurora in the future, but you'll have to wait.

Because Aurora currently only supports InnoDB, you won't be able to use MyISAM tables.

With Aurora, you don't have the choice of using smaller RDS than r3.large.

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Ques. 11): Is it possible for my application to fail over to the cross-region replica from my current primary?


Yes, you can use the Amazon RDS console to promote your cross-region replica to the new primary. The promotion process for logical (binlog) replication takes a few minutes, depending on your workload. When you start the promotion process, the cross-region replication will halt.

You may promote a secondary region to take full read/write workloads in under a minute with Amazon Aurora Global Database.

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Ques. 12): What is Amazon RDS for MySQL and how does it work?


AWS RDS for MySQL manages time-consuming database management activities including backups, software patching, monitoring, scaling, and replication, allowing you to focus on application development.

It is compatible with Amazon RDS Community Edition versions.

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Ques. 13): What does it mean to be "MySQL compatible"?


Amazon Aurora is plug-and-play compatible with existing MySQL open-source databases, and new releases are added on a regular basis. This implies that using conventional import/export tools or snapshots, you can quickly move MySQL databases to and from Aurora. It also means that the majority of the code, apps, drivers, and utilities you already use with MySQL databases can be utilised with Aurora with little or no modification. When comparing Aurora with MySQL, keep in mind that the Amazon Aurora database engine is designed to be wire-compatible with MySQL 5.6 and 5.7, which uses the InnoDB storage engine. This makes switching applications between the two engines a breeze. Amazon Aurora does not support certain MySQL capabilities, such as the MyISAM storage engine.

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Ques. 14): How can I switch from MySQL to Amazon Aurora and back?


There are various options available to you. To export data from MySQL and to import data into Amazon Aurora, use the normal mysqldump and mysqlimport utilities, respectively. You can also utilise the AWS Management Console to move an Amazon RDS for MySQL DB Snapshot to Amazon Aurora utilising Amazon RDS's DB Snapshot migration feature. Most customers have their migration completed in under an hour, while the time varies on the type and amount of the data set.

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Ques. 15): What does it mean to have "five times the performance of MySQL"?


By tightly integrating the database engine with an SSD-based virtualized storage layer purpose-built for database workloads, Amazon Aurora improves MySQL performance by lowering writes to the storage system, avoiding lock contention, and eliminating delays caused by database process threads. Amazon Aurora offers over 500,000 SELECTs/sec and 100,000 UPDATEs/sec, five times faster than MySQL running the same benchmark on the same hardware, according to our tests with SysBench on r3.8xlarge instances.

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Ques. 16): What are the best practises for optimising my database workload for Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL-Compatible Edition?


Amazon Aurora is designed to be PostgreSQL compatible, allowing existing PostgreSQL applications and tools to run without needing to be modified. However, Amazon Aurora outperforms PostgreSQL in the domain of highly concurrent workloads. We recommend building your applications to support a large number of concurrent queries and transactions in order to maximise your workload's throughput on Amazon Aurora.

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Ques. 17): What are the options for scaling the compute resources associated with my Amazon Aurora DB Instance?


By selecting the desired DB Instance and clicking the Modify button in the AWS Management Console, you can scale the compute resources allocated to your DB Instance. Changing the DB Instance class modifies memory and CPU resources.

When you make modifications to your DB Instance class, they will be applied during the maintenance window you specify. You can also utilise the "Apply Immediately" flag to have your scaling requests applied right away. Both of these approaches will have a short-term impact on availability while the scaling operation is carried out. Remember that any other pending system modifications will be applied as well.

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Ques. 18): What is my plan of action if my database fails?


Amazon Aurora keeps six copies of your data across three Availability Zones (AZs) and will attempt to recover your database in a healthy AZ without losing any data. You can restore from a DB Snapshot or perform a point-in-time restore procedure to a fresh instance if your data is unavailable within Amazon Aurora storage. For a point-in-time restoration procedure, the latest restoreable time can be up to five minutes in the past.

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Ques. 19): Is it possible for me to share my photos with another AWS account?


Yes. Aurora allows you to take snapshots of your databases, which you may then use to restore them later. You can share a snapshot with another AWS account, and the receiving account's owner can use it to restore a database containing your data. You may even make your snapshots public, allowing anyone to restore a database containing your (public) data. You can use this capability to exchange data between different AWS accounts for different settings (production, dev/test, staging, etc.), as well as keep backups of all your data in a separate account in case your main AWS account is ever compromised.


Ques. 20): How does Amazon Aurora improve the fault tolerance of my database in the event of a disc failure?


Amazon Aurora divides your database volume into 10 GB parts and distributes them over many discs. Your database volume is replicated six times, over three AZs, for each 10 GB piece. Amazon Aurora is built to handle the loss of up to two copies of data without affecting database write availability and up to three copies without affecting database read availability in a transparent manner. Amazon Aurora is also self-healing storage. Data blocks and drives are inspected for faults and corrected automatically on a regular basis.



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