Showing posts with label web. Show all posts
Showing posts with label web. Show all posts

Wednesday, 5 January 2022

Top 20 Apache Struts 2 Interview Questions and Answers


Struts 2 is a Java enterprise application framework for constructing web applications. It was created by the Apache Software Foundation. In the year 2006, it was first released. It's written in the Java programming language. It is cross-platform compatible. It is built on the MVC architecture, which is a software design paradigm for creating applications. Struts 2 includes features such as simplified testability, Ajax support, Thread-safety, and Template support, among others.

Apache Cassandra Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 1): What exactly is Struts2?


Apache Struts2 is a Java web application framework that is free source. The OpenSymphony WebWork framework is the foundation for Struts2. It's a significant improvement over Struts1, making it more adaptable, simple to use, and extendable. Action, Interceptors, and Result pages are the three main components of Struts2.

Struts2 offers a variety of options for creating Action classes and configuring them using struts.xml or annotations. For common jobs, we can make our own interceptors. Struts2 includes a large number of tags and makes use of the OGNL expression language. To render result pages, we can design our own type converters. JSPs and FreeMarker templates can be used as result pages.

 Apache Camel Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 2): What are some of Struts2's features?


Here are some of the fantastic features that can persuade you to use Struts2.

POJO forms and POJO actions − Struts2 has done away with the Action Forms that were an integral part of the Struts framework. With Struts2, you can use any POJO to receive the form input. Similarly, you can now see any POJO as an Action class.

Tag support − Struts2 has improved the form tags and the new tags allow the developers to write less code.

AJAX support − Struts2 has recognised the take over by Web2.0 technologies, and has integrated AJAX support into the product by creating AJAX tags, that function very similar to the standard Struts2 tags.

Easy Integration − Integration with other frameworks like Spring, Tiles and SiteMesh is now easier with a variety of integration available with Struts2.

Template Support − Support for generating views using templates.

Plugin Support − The core Struts2 behaviour can be enhanced and augmented by the use of plugins. A number of plugins are available for Struts2.

Apache Ant Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 3): What's the difference between Struts 1 and Struts 2?


This is a list of the most common Strut 2 interview questions. The action class in Strut 1 is not a POJO, hence it must inherit the abstract class. An action servlet is used as the front controller. Only JSP is used for the component view. A configuration file can be inserted in the WEB-INF directory in section 1. When processing requests, it makes use of the Request Processor class. Actions and models are separated in Strut 1.

The action class in Strut 2 is a POJO, therefore there's no need to inherit any classes or implement any interfaces. For the view component, it has JSP, free-market, and so on. The function controller in strut 2 is the Struts Prepare and Execute filter. In this, a configuration file must be named as struts.xml and placed inside the classes directory. It uses the concept of Interceptors while processing the request. In strut 2, action and models are combined within the action class.

Apache Tomcat Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 4): In Struct2, What Is The Use Of


This configuration file allows you to override the framework's default behaviour. In fact, all of the properties in the configuration file can be defined in the web.xml using the init-param, as well as in the struts.xml configuration file using the constant tag. However, if you prefer to keep things separate and more struts specific, you can create this file in the WEB-INF/classes folder. The default values configured in, which is included in the struts2-core-x.y.z.jar distribution, will be overridden by the values configured in this file.

Apache Kafka Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 5): Explain The Life Cycle Of A Request In Struct2 Application?

Answer :

Following is the life cycle of a request in Struct2 application −

  • User sends a request to the server for requesting for some resource (i.e pages).
  • The FilterDispatcher looks at the request and then determines the appropriate Action.
  • Configured interceptors functionalities applies such as validation, file upload etc.
  • Selected action is executed to perform the requested operation.
  • Again, configured interceptors are applied to do any post-processing if required.
  • Finally the result is prepared by the view and returns the result to the user.

Apache Tapestry Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 6): What are the inbuilt themes that are provided by strut 2?


There are 3 different inbuilt themes:

Simple theme: It is a minimal theme which is having very little content. It means that the text field tag renders the HTML tag without label, validation, error reporting or any other formatting or functionality.

XHTML theme: It is referred to as the default theme used by struts 2 and provides all the basics that a simple theme provides. It adds the other several features like standard two-column table layout for the HTML labels for each of the HTML, validation and error reporting etc.

Css_xhtml theme: This is the theme that provides all the basics that the simple theme provides, and it adds other several features like the standard two-column CSS-based layout and using div tag for HTML struts tags, labels for each of the HTML struts tags and placed according to the CSS style sheet.

Apache Ambari interview Questions & Answers

 Ques. 7): What is internationalization and how does it work?


This is one of the most common Struts 2 Interview Questions that is asked during an interview. Localization refers to the process of planning and implementing products and services so that they may be easily modified to specific local languages and cultures, whereas internationalization refers to the act of enabling localization.

Apache Hive Interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 8): What is the difference between an interceptor and a filter?


The interceptors are built around struts 2. It runs for all requests that qualify for a servlet filter front controller and can be customised to run extra interceptors for specific action execution. Interceptor methods can be configured to execute or not to execute using exclude and include methods.

Servlet specifications are used to create the filters. Executes on request and non-configurable method calls if the pattern matches.

Apache Spark Interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 9): Explain struts 2's XML-based validation.


XML-based validation in Struts 2 adds more validation options, such as email validation, integer range validation, form validation field, expression validation, regex validation, needed validation, string length validation, and necessary string validation, among others. The XML file must be titled 'actionclass'-validation.xml in Struts 2.

Apache NiFi Interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 10): How Does Validation in Struts 2 Work?


When the user clicks the submit button, Struts 2 will run the validate method, and if any of the if statements inside the method are true, Struts 2 will call the addFieldError method. Struts 2 will not proceed to invoke the execute method if any errors have been introduced. The Struts 2 framework, on the other hand, will return input as a result of calling the action.

When validation fails and Struts 2 returns input, the view file is redisplayed by the Struts 2 framework. Because we utilised Struts 2 form tags, the error messages will appear directly above the completed form.

These are the error messages we specified in the call to the addFieldError function. The addFieldError method takes two arguments. The first is the form field name to which the error applies and the second is the error message to display above that form field.


Ques. 11): What Types Of Validations Are Available In Xml Based Validation In Struts2?

Answer :

Following is the list of various types of field level and non-field level validation available in Struts2 −

  • date validator
  • double validator
  • email validator
  • expression validator
  • int validator
  • regex validator
  • required validator
  • requiredstring validator
  • stringlength validator
  • url validator


Ques. 12):  How Does Struts 2's Interceptor Work?


The actual action will be performed by calling invocation.invoke() from the interceptor. So, depending on your needs, you can conduct some pre-processing and some post-processing.

The framework initiates the process by using the invoke method on the ActionInvocation object (). When invoke() is called, ActionInvocation consults its state and performs the next available interceptor. The invoke() method will cause the action to be executed once all of the configured interceptors have been invoked.


Ques. 13): What Is Value Stack?

Answer :

The value stack is a set of several objects which keeps the following objects in the provided order −

Temporary Objects − There are various temporary objects which are created during execution of a page. For example the current iteration value for a collection being looped over in a JSP tag.

The Model Object − If you are using model objects in your struts application, the current model object is placed before the action on the value stack.

The Action Object − This will be the current action object which is being executed.

Named Objects − These objects include #application, #session, #request, #attr and #parameters and refer to the corresponding servlet scopes.


Ques. 14): What Is The Difference Between Valuestack And OGNL?


ValueStack is the storage space where Struts2 stores application data for processing client requests. The information is saved in ActionContext objects that use ThreadLocal to store values that are unique to each request thread.

OGNL (Object-Graph Navigation Language) is a sophisticated Expression Language for manipulating data on the ValueStack. Both interceptors and result pages can use OGNL to access data stored on ValueStack, as shown in the architectural diagram.


Ques. 15): What Is The Struts-default Package And How Does It Help?


Struts-default is an abstract package that specifies all of the Struts2 interceptors as well as the most widely used interceptor stack. To prevent having to configure interceptors twice, it's best to extend this package while configuring our application package. This is provided to assist developers by making the work of configuring interceptor and result pages in our application a lot easier.


Ques. 16): What Is The Purpose Of @after Annotation?

Answer :

The @After annotation marks a action method that needs to be called after the main action method and the result was executed. Return value is ignored.

public class Employee extends ActionSupport{


   public void isValid() throws ValidationException {

      // validate model object, throw exception if failed


   public String execute() {

      // perform secure action

      return SUCCESS;




Ques. 17): What Is The Purpose Of @before Annotation?

Answer :

The @Before annotation marks a action method that needs to be called before the main action method and the result was executed. Return value is ignored.

public class Employee extends ActionSupport{


   public void isAuthorized() throws AuthenticationException {

      // authorize request, throw exception if failed


   public String execute() {

      // perform secure action

      return SUCCESS;




Ques. 18): What Is The Difference Between Using An Action Interface And Using An Actionsupport Class For Our Action Classes, And Which Would You Prefer?


To develop our action classes, we can use the Action interface. This interface only has one function, execute(), which we must implement. The main advantage of utilising this interface is that it includes some constants that can be used on result pages, such as SUCCESS, ERROR, NONE, INPUT, and LOGIN.

The ActionSupport class implements the Action interface by default, as well as interfaces for Validation and i18n support. Action, Validateable, ValidationAware, TextProvider, and LocaleProvider are all implemented by the ActionSupport class. To implement field level validation login in our action classes, we can override the validate() method of the ActionSupport class.

Depending on the requirements, we can use any of the approaches to create struts 2 action classes, my favorite is ActionSupport class because it helps in writing validation and i18n logic easily in action classes.


Ques. 19): How Do We Get Servlet Api Requests, Responses, Httpsessions, and Other Objects Into Action Classes?


Servlet API components such as Request, Response, and Session are not directly accessible through Struts2 action classes. However, in some action classes, such as checking the HTTP method or adding cookies in the response, these accesses are required.

As a result, the Struts2 API exposes a number of *Aware interfaces through which we can access these objects. Struts2 API injects Servlet API components into action classes using dependency injection. SessionAware, ApplicationAware, ServletRequestAware, and ServletResponseAware are some of the most essential Aware interfaces.


Ques. 20): Is Struts2 Interceptors And Action Thread Safe?


Because an object is instantiated for each request to process, Struts2 Action classes are thread safe.

Because Struts2 interceptors are singleton classes that launch a new thread to handle the request, they are not thread safe, and we must construct them carefully to avoid any shared data concerns.




Monday, 3 January 2022

Top 20 Apache Tomcat Interview Questions and Answers


       Tomcat is a Java Servlet container and web server developed by the Apache Software Foundation's Jakarta project. Client browsers send queries to a web server, which the server answers to with web pages. Web servers can generate dynamic content based on the user's requests. Because it supports both Java servlet and JavaServerPages (JSP) technologies, Tomcat excels at this. Even if a free servlet and JSP engine is required, Tomcat can be utilised as a web server for a variety of applications. It can run on its own or alongside standard web servers like Apache httpd, delivering static pages while Tomcat handles dynamic servlet and JSP queries.

    Apache Tomcat is an open source Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages, Java Expression Language, and Java WebSocket implementation platform. Many firms are hiring Devops engineers, Apache Tomcat administrators, Linux Apache Tomcat jobs, and Hadoop developers at varying levels of experience. The most popular Web server is Apache, and you must be familiar with it if you plan to work as a Middleware/System/Web administrator. Apache HTTP is a free and open-source web server that runs on Windows and Linux.

 Apache Kafka Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 1): Who is in charge of Tomcat?


The Apache Software Foundation is the correct answer. The Apache Software Foundation is a non-profit organisation that oversees several Open Source projects.

The Apache Software Foundation's Java-based projects are referred to as Jakarta.

Tomcat is an Apache Jakarta project that manages server-side Java (in the form of Servlets and JSPs). Tomcat is the "reference" implementation of the Servlet and JSP specifications, which means that anything that runs in Tomcat should run in any compliant Servlet / JSP container.

 Apache Tapestry Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 2): Difference between apache and apache-tomcat server?


Apache: Apache is mostly used to serve static content, but there are numerous add-on modules (some of which are included with Apache) that allow it to modify the content and serve dynamic content written in Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and other languages.

Apache is an HTTP server that serves HTTP requests.

Tomcat is a servlet/JSP container developed by Apache. It's written in the Java programming language. Although it can provide static information, its primary function is to host servlets and JSPs.

JSP files (which are comparable to PHP and older ASP files) are converted into Java code (HttpServlet), which is then compiled into.class files and run by the Java virtual machine by the server.

Apache Tomcat is used to deploy your Java Servlets and JSPs. So in your Java project, you can build your WAR (short for Web ARchive) file, and just drop it in the deploy directory in Tomcat.

Although it is possible to get Tomcat to run Perl scripts and the like, you wouldn’t use Tomcat unless most of your content was Java.

Tomcat is a Servlet and JSP Server serving Java technologies

 Apache Ambari interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 3):  What exactly is Coyote?


Coyote is a Tomcat Connector component that acts as a web server and supports the HTTP 1.1 protocol. This enables Catalina, which is ostensibly a Java Servlet or JSP container, to additionally serve local files as HTTP documents.

Coyote monitors a specific TCP port for incoming connections to the server and transmits the request to the Tomcat Engine, which processes the request and returns a response to the requesting client.

Coyote is Tomcat's HTTP connector, which offers an interface for browsers to connect to.

 Apache Hive Interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 4): What is a servlet container?


A servlet container is a web server component that communicates with Java servlets. The servlet container is in charge of managing servlet lifecycles, mapping URLs to specific servlets, and ensuring that the URL requester has the appropriate access privileges.

Requests to servlets, JavaServer Pages (JSP) files, and other types of files containing server-side code are handled by the servlet container. The Web container generates servlet instances, loads and unloads servlets, creates and manages request and response objects, and handles other servlet-related operations.

The web component contract of the Java EE architecture is implemented by the servlet container, which defines a runtime environment for web components that includes security, concurrency, lifecycle management, transaction, deployment, and other services.

Apache Spark Interview Questions & Answers 

Ques. 5): How Do I Can Change The Default Home Page Loaded By Tomcat?

Answer :

We can easily override home page via adding welcome-file-list in application $TOMCAT_HOME/webapps//WEB-INF /web.xml file or by editing in container $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/web.xml

In $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/web.xml, it may look like this:




Request URI refers to a directory, the default servlet looks for a "welcome file" within that directory in following order: index.html, index.htm and index.jsp

Apache NiFi Interview Questions & Answers 

Ques. 6): what is a difference between Apache and Nginx web server?


Both are classified as Web Servers, but there are a few key differences. Nginx is an event-driven web server, whereas Apache is a process-driven web server.

Nginx has a reputation for being faster than Apache.

Whereas Nginx does not support OpenVMS or IBMi, Apache supports a wide range of operating systems.

Nginx is still catching up to Apache in terms of module interoperability with backend application servers.

Nginx is a lightweight web server that is rapidly gaining market share. If you're new to Nginx, you might be interested in reading some of my Nginx articles.

 Apache Ant Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 7): How Do You Create Multiple Virtual Hosts?

Answer :

If you want tomcat to accept requests for different hosts e.g. then you must

Create ${catalina.home}/www/appBase , ${catalina.home}/www/deploy, and ${catalina.home}/conf/Catalina/

Add a host entry in the server.xml file

Create the the following file under conf/Catalina/

Add any parameters specific to this hosts webapp to this context file

Put your war file in ${catalina.home}/www/deploy

When tomcat starts, it finds the host entry, then looks for any context files and will start any apps with a context.


Ques. 8): In Apache Tomcat, what is Catalina?


Once Jasper has completed the compilation, it turns JSP into a servlet, which Catalina can then manage. Catalina is a servlet container for Tomcat. It also implements all of the Java server page and servlet specs. Catalina is a Java engine embedded into Tomcat that provides an efficient environment for servlets to execute in.


Ques. 9): What exactly do you mean by Tomcat's default port, and can it be used with SSL?


Tomcat uses port 8080 as its default port. Well, you can change it by editing the server.xml file in the Tomcat install directory's conf folder. By adjusting the property to the desired port connection port="8080" and then restarting Tomcat, the modifications will take effect.

Tomcat can use SSL, but it will require some configuration. You must complete the following tasks:

Generate a keystore

Then add a connector in server.xml

Restart Tomcat


Ques. 10): What is a mod_evasive module, and what does it do?


Mod_evasive is a third-party module that accomplishes one simple task really well. It identifies when your site is under attack by a Denial of Service (DoS) attack and mitigates the harm that the attack causes. When a single client makes repeated requests in a short period of time, mod evasive recognises this and refuses additional requests from that client. The ban can last for a very short time because it is simply reissued the following time a request is discovered from that same host.


Ques. 11): Explain Directory Structure Of Tomcat?

Answer :

Directory structure of Tomcat are:

bin - contain startup, shutdown, and other scripts (*.sh for UNIX and *.bat for Windows systems) and some jar files also there.

conf - Server configuration files (including server.xml) and related DTDs. The most important file in here is server.xml. It is the main configuration file for the container.

lib - contains JARs those are used by container and Servlet and JSP application programming interfaces (APIs).

logs - Log and output files.

webapps – deployed web applications reside in it .

work - Temporary working directories for web applications and mostly used during in JSP compilation where JSP is converted to a Java servlet.

temp - Directory used by the JVM for temporary files .


Ques. 12): Explain How Running Tomcat As A Windows Service Provides Benefits?

Answer :

Running Tomcat as a windows service provides benefits like:

Automatic startup: It is crucial for environment where you may want to remotely re-start a system after maintenance

Server startup without active user login: Tomcat is run oftenly on blade servers that may not even have an active monitor attached to them. Windows services can be started without an active user

Security: Tomcat under window service enables you to run it under a special system account, which is protected from the rest of the user accounts


Ques. 13): How Do Servlet Life Cycles Work?


The life-cycle of a typical Tomcat servlet is as follows:

Through one of its connectors, Tom-cat receives a request from a client.

This request will be processed. This request is routed through Tomcat to the proper server.

Tomcat checks that the servlet class has been loaded after the request has been forwarded to the proper servlet. If it isn't, Tomcat wraps the servlet in Java Bytecode, which is executed by the JVM and creates a servlet instance.

The servlet is started by Tomcat by invoking its init method. The servlet includes code that can inspect Tomcat configuration files and take appropriate action, as well as declare any resources it might need.

Once the servlet has been started, Tomcat can call the servlet’s service method to proceed the request

Tomcat and the servlet can co-ordinate or communicate through the use of listener classes during the servlet’s lifecycle, which tracks the servlet for a variety of state changes.

To remove the servlet, Tomcat calls the servlets destroy method.


Ques. 14): In Tomcat, what is the difference between a host and a context?


In Tomcat, the host is a component. It's a network name association for the server. On the other hand, context is an element that indicates a web application that is running on a certain virtual host. Web applications are built on top of a Web Application Archive (WAR) file or a corresponding directory that contains all of the unpacked content indicated in the servlet description.


Ques. 15): What Is The Distinction Between A Webserver And An Application Server?


The main distinction between a web server and an application server is that a web server can only execute web applications, such as servlets and JSPs, and has just one container, the Web container, that is used to understand and execute web applications. The application server has the ability to run Enterprise applications, i.e. (servlets, jsps, and EJBs)

it is having two containers:

Web Container(for interpreting/executing servlets and jsps)

EJB container(for executing EJBs).

it can perform operations like load balancing , transaction demarcation etc.


Ques. 16): Apart from Apache Tomcat, what are the different kinds of Web Servers?


There are many web servers as mentioned below:

LiteSpeed Web Server

GWS Web Server

Microsoft IIS Web Server

Nginx Web Server

Jigsaw Web Server

Sun Java System Web Server

Lighttpd Web Server


Ques. 17): How to limit upload size?


I have a web application that allows users to upload files such as word documents, pdf and so on.  How do I limit file upload by users?

You can make use of the LimitRequestBody directive to limit upload file size.

<Directory "usr/local/apache2/uploads">

LimitRequestBody 9000


The value assigned to the LimitRequestBody allows Apache to accept and store file uploads of 9000 bytes by users. You can adjust the value based on the requirement.


Ques. 18): Explain how to use WAR files to deploy a web application.


JSPs, servlets, and their associated files are placed under Tomcat's web applications directory in the appropriate subdirectories. You can combine all of the files in the web apps directory into a single compressed file with the extension.war. A web application can be run by placing a WAR file in the webapps directory. When a web server starts up, it extracts the contents of the WAR file and places them in the proper webapps sub-directories.


Ques. 19): How can an Apache Service be stopped by its control script?


The Apache Service is controlled using a script called the apachectl.

So, to stop the service, we need to run the below-mentioned commands.

#apachectl stop [for Ubuntu based system]

# /etc/inid.t/httpd.stop [for red hat based system]


Ques. 20): What is the purpose of the Listen property in Apache Tomcat?

Listening is very important for Apache Tomcat and the developers.

If a developer has numerous IPs on the server, we must explicitly indicate IP and PORT in the Listen Drive if we want Apache to evaluate only one of them.

For example:



Sunday, 28 November 2021

Top 20 Oracle Access Manager Interview Questions and Answers


Oracle Access Manager (Access Manager) is the key capability for Web Single Sign-on (SSO), authentication, authorisation, centralised policy administration and agent management, real-time session management, and auditing in the new Oracle Access Management platform. Access Manager is a 100% Java solution that is incredibly scalable, allowing it to manage Internet-scale installations. It also works with heterogeneous environments that already exist, with agents certified for hundreds of web and application servers. Access Manager increases security, improves user experience and productivity, and improves compliance while lowering total cost of ownership by providing broad capabilities, scalability, and high availability.

  Oracle SQL Interview Questions and Answers

Ques: 1). What are the different security modes available in Oracle Access Manager?


Open: Allows communication without encryption. There is no authentication or encryption between the AccessGate and the Access Server in Open mode. The AccessGate does not need the Access Server to provide proof of identification, and the Access Server accepts connections from all AccessGates. Similarly, Identity Server does not require WebPass to provide confirmation of identity.

Simple: Oracle encryption is supported. TLS v1 is used to secure communications between Web clients in Simple mode (WebPass and Identity Server, Policy Manager and WebPass, and Access Server and WebGate). Oracle Access Manager components only use X.509 digital certificates in both Simple and Cert modes. The standard cert-decode plug-in decodes the certificate and delivers certificate information to the standard credential mapping authentication plug-in in Cert Authentication between WebGates and the Access Server. Oracle Access Manager saves the associated private key for each public key in the aaa key.pem file for the Access Server (or ois key.pem for the Identity Server).

Cert: A third-party certificate is required. If you have an internal Certificate Authority (CA) for processing server certificates, use Cert (SSL) mode. Communication between WebGate and Access Server, as well as between Identity Server and WebPass, is encrypted in Cert mode utilising Transport Layer Security (RFC 2246). (TLS v1).

BlockChain Interview Question and Answers

Ques: 2). What Is Oracle Access Manager's Architecture?


Identity Server, WebPass, Policy Manager, Access Server, and a WebGate are the primary components of the Oracle Access Manager architecture. Identity Server is a stand-alone C++ server that connects to LDAP directly.

It also receives requests from Webpass and responds to them. WebPass is a web server plugin that allows information to be passed between the identity server and the web server. It sends Identity XML SOAP requests to Identity Server and redirects HTTP requests from the browser to Access Server.

A web server plugin called Policy Manager (PMP or PAP) interfaces directly with user, configuration, and policy repositories. Access Server, commonly known as PDP, is a stand-alone C++ server. It receives requests from WebGates/AccessGates and responds to them.

It also uses LDAP for communication. It responds to queries from the Access Server SDK. WebGate (PEP) is a web server plugin that communicates with the access server. It passes user authentication data to access server for processing.


Ques: 3). In Oracle Access Manager, what is the Iwa mechanism?


The OAM offers a feature that allows Microsoft Internet Explorer users to authenticate to their Web packages using their computing device credentials on a regular basis. Windows Native Authentication is the term for this. The user logs in to the computer, and the Windows Domain Administrator authentication mechanism is used to complete the local authentication.

The user launches an Internet Explorer (IE) browser and asks a Web assist from the Access System.

The browser notifies the IIS Web server about the neighbourhood authentication and sends a token.

The token is used by the IIS Web server to authenticate the user and to set the REMOTE USER HTTP header variable, which indicates the customer name provided by the customer and authenticated by the server.

The WebGate creates an ObSSOCookie and sends it lower back to the browser.

The Access System authorization and different techniques proceed as usual.

The maximum session timeout length configured for the WebGate is applicable to the generated ObSSOCookie.


Ques: 4). What Is An Access Server Sdk?

Answer :

The Access Manager Software Developer's Kit (SDK) allows you to extend the Access System's access management features. You can use this SDK to construct a customised AccessGate. The Access Manager SDK provides an environment in which you can establish an AccessGate by creating a dynamic link library or a shared object. You'll also need configureAccessGate.exe to make sure your client is working properly.


Ques: 5).  What Is Policy Manager Api?

Answer :

The Policy Manager API provides an interface that allows custom applications to establish and edit Access System policy domains and their contents using the Access Server's authentication, authorization, and auditing capabilities.


Ques: 6). Name some new features of OAM11gR2?


Dynamic Authentication -- Dynamic authentication is the ability to define what authentication scheme should be presented to a user base on some condition.

Persistent Login (Remember Me) -- Persistent Login is the ability to let users login without credentials after the first-time login.

Policy Evaluation Ordering -- The out-of-the -box algorithm is based on the "best match" algorithm for evaluating policies.

Delegated Administration -- The ability to select users who can administer their own application domains.

Unified Administration Console -- The console screen has a new look; a new single 'Launch Pad' screen with services that are enabled based on user roles.

Session Management -- Ability to set idle session timeout's at the application domain level


Ques: 7). What is IIS?


Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly Internet Information Server) is a Microsoft extensible web server designed for use with the Windows NT family of operating systems. [2] HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, SMTP, and NNTP are all supported by IIS. Since Windows NT 4.0, it has been a fundamental element of the Windows NT family, albeit it may be missing from other editions (e.g. Windows XP Home edition). When Windows is installed, IIS is not enabled by default. The IIS Manager can be accessed through the Control Panel's Microsoft Management Console or Administrative Tools.


Ques: 8). What is the meaning of an Oracle Access Manager Basic License?


The Oracle Access Manager (OAM) Basic licence was intended to support Oracle AS Single Sign-On (OSSO) customers who purchased the Oracle iAS Suite or other Oracle E-Business Suite products. Customers who have valid Oracle Single Sign-On (OSSO) licences can swap them for an equivalent number of Access Manager licences under the OAM Basic licence, with some restrictions. Access Manager must employ Oracle infrastructure components due to the constraints; this was also a requirement for OSSO. The LDAP directory, for example, must be Oracle Internet Directory or Oracle Virtual Directory, and only Oracle application resources can be protected. Customers who want to remove the restrictions must acquire the complete Access Manager licence.


Ques: 9). What is Oracle Webgate, and how does it work?


Oracle WebGate is a Web server plug-in that comes with Oracle Access Manager out of the box. Users' HTTP requests for Web resources are intercepted by the WebGate and forwarded to the Access Server for authentication and permission.


Ques: 10). 11g Access Manager Oracle HTTP Server 11g and IBM HTTP Server 7.0 support WebGates, but I prefer Apache Web Servers. If I want to use Access Manager 11g, what should I do?


Oracle Access Manager 10g WebGates can communicate with Access Manager 11g servers. Oracle Access Manager 10g WebGates have a wide range of web server certifications, including Apache, Domino, Microsoft IIS, and many others. With thousands of applications, I have a massive Oracle Access Manager 10gR3 implementation. Do I have to transfer them all at once to the new 11gR2 platform? No. Both Oracle Access Manager 10gR3 and Oracle Access Manager 11gR2 servers can be live in production at the same time, protecting distinct sets of applications, thanks to server side coexistence in Access Manager 11gR2. End users will continue having a seamless single sign-on experience as they navigate between applications protected by the two servers. This capability can be leveraged by customers with large deployments to perform the server migration in a phased manner over a period of time without impacting end users.


Ques: 11). With thousands of applications, I have a massive Sun Access Manager 7.1 or Sun Access Manager 7.1 deployment. Is it necessary to migrate all of them to the new Access Manager 11gR2 platform at the same time?


No. Both the OpenSSO 8.0 (or Sun Access Manager 7.1) and Access Manager 11gR2 servers can be live in production at the same time safeguarding distinct sets of apps with Access Manager 11gR2. End users will continue to have a seamless single sign-on experience as they move between the two servers' protected apps. Customers with big deployments can utilise this capability to migrate servers in stages over time without affecting end users.


Ques: 12).What Is An Identity Xml?


IdentityXML provides a programmatic interface for performing the actions that a user can perform while using a browser to access a COREid application. A software can, for example, submit an IdentityXML request to find members of a group defined in the Group Manager software or to add a person to the User Manager. Simple moves and multi-step procedures can be applied to trade person, institution, and company object profiles using IdentityXML. After you've finished constructing the IdentityXML request, you'll need to put up a SOAP wrapper to send the IdentityXML request to WebPass over HTTP. XML over SOAP is used by the IdentityXML API. Using an HTTP request, we send IdentityXML parameters to the COREid Server. A SOAP envelope is included in this HTTP request. When WebPass receives an HTTP request, the SOAP envelope identifies it as an IdentityXML request rather than a standard browser request. The request is passed to the COREid Server, which executes the request and returns a response. You could also use WSDL to put together the SOAP request. This appears to be the SOAP content material: SOAP envelope (with oblix namespace described), SOAP body (with authentication information), genuine request (with software name and params). Userservcenter, groupservcenter, or objservcenter are examples of application names (for companies).


Ques: 13). What are Header Variables and How Do I Use Them?


The Header Variable contains Oracle Access Manager allows administrators to build a web of trust in which a user's credentials are confirmed once and then delivered to each application that the user uses. The programme does not need to re-authenticate the user with its own mechanism when using these credentials. Users who have been authenticated by Oracle Access Manager are able to access applications without having to re-authenticate. A user's credentials can be sent in one of two ways:

• Using Cookies: A specific value is set on the browser's cookie that the application must extract to identify a user.

• Using Header Variables: An HTTP header set on the request by the agent and visible to the application. Authorization Policy Response in the Administration Console Header response values are inserted into a request by an OAM Agent, and can only be applied on Web servers that are protected by an agent registered with OAM 11g If the policy includes a redirect URL that is hosted by a Web server not protected by OAM, header responses are not applied.


Ques: 14). Explain the Oam-oaam Integration Architecture and Integration.


Using all of these products together will provide you complete control over the authentication process and comprehensive pre-/post-authentication testing capabilities against Adaptive Risk Manager models.

Two Oracle Access Manager AccessGates are used in the OAAM's ASA-OAM integration: one for fronting the Web server (a traditional WebGate) to Adaptive Strong Authenticator and one for the embedded AccessGate. The access server SDK must be installed and configured before the AccessGate device can be used. The ASDK location will be updated in the ASA bharosa papers. An application that will use the ASA authentication mechanism and will be tested for the ASA login touchdown page.


Ques: 15). What Happens When A User Submits A Request That Is Protected By An Access Gate (No Longer Webgate)?


The following is an example of the flow:

The consumer sends a resource request to the application or servlet that has the access gate code.

The access gate code creates an ObResourceRequest shape and calls the Access server to determine whether or not the resource is protected.

The server responds to the request for entry. If the aid isn't secured, gaining access to the gate allows anyone to gain access to the resource. Otherwise, Access Gate creates an ObAuthenticationScheme shape to inquire about the credentials the user wishes to send to Access Server. The request for entry to the server is granted. To get the credentials, the programme employs a form or one of several additional methods. The AccessGate creates the ObUserSession structure, which provides the Acc Server with user information. If credentials are verified valid, get admission to gate creates a session token for the person after which sends an authorization request to the get admission to server. Access server validates if the user is authz to get right of entry to that useful resource. Access gate permits user to get entry to the asked resource.


Ques: 16). What exactly is SSO?


SSO (single sign-on) is a session/user authentication method that allows a user to access different apps with just one username and password. The procedure authenticates the user for all of the programmes to which they have been granted access and removes the need for further questions when they switch applications during a session.


  • Provides users with unified sign-on and authentication across all their enterprise resources, including
  • desktops, client-server, custom, and host-based mainframe applications
  • Provides a centralized framework for security and compliance enforcement
  • Eliminates the need for multiple usernames and passwords
  • Helps enforce strong password and authentication policies.
  • Uses any LDAP directory, Active Directory, or any SQL database server as its user profile and credential repository


  • Reduces deployment risk and operational costs.
  • Allows enterprises to provide fast, secure access to applications for employees and partners.
  • Eliminates the overhead and limitations of traditional desktop client deployments.
  • Seamlessly integrates with Oracle Identity Management for common security policy enforcement and compliance reporting across applications


Ques: 17). What is Reverse Proxy?


A reverse proxy gives you architectural flexibility by allowing you to expose the same application on both the intranet and the extranet without having to make any changes to the existing application. By sending all requests through the proxy, you may safeguard all Web content from a single logical component.

This is true even for platforms that Oracle Access Manager does not support. All content on these servers can be safeguarded if you have multiple types of Web servers, such as iPlanet, Apache, and others, running on different platforms, such as MacOS, Solaris x86, mainframe, and so on. A reverse proxy can be used as a workaround for unsupported Web servers, removing the requirement to develop custom AccessGates for unsupported Web servers or systems that do not support AccessGates. This creates a single management point. You can manage the security of all of the Web servers through the reverse proxy without establishing a footprint on the other Web servers.


Ques: 18). What is Identity Store and how does it work? Describe the many types of identity stores.


The term "identity store" refers to a database that contains business users and groups. Weblogic includes an inbuilt LDAP that is used as the identity store by default by fusion middleware components. External LDAP servers, such as OID, AD, and others, can be configured to serve as identity stores.

System Store - Represents the identity store which will have groups or users that will act as “Administrators” to OAM that is only members of this identity store group/user can perform admin functions via oam console.

Default Store - This will be the identity store that will be used at time of patching for migration purpose or by Oracle security token service.


Ques: 19). In OAM, what are Authorization Policies?


The process of assessing whether a user has the permission to access a requested resource is known as authorization. Administrators can establish the circumstances under which a subject or identity has access to a resource by creating one or more authorization policies. A user may seek to view data or run a policy-protected application programme. The requested resource must be part of an application domain and be covered by a specified permission policy within that domain.


Ques: 20). In comparison to the ECC, what are the benefits of the DCC?


From a security and flexibility standpoint, the DCC has several advantages. The DCC can be placed anywhere in the DMZ because it is totally detached from the Access Manager server. It also adds security by terminating all unauthenticated end user login requests at the DCC in the DMZ, isolating the server from unauthenticated network traffic.

Monday, 22 November 2021

Top 20 Aws Cloud Support Engineer Interview Question & Answers


Ques: 1). What is the purpose of Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud services?


"Storage," as this is the primary purpose of AWS cloud services. Customers can store several types of material on the Amazon online service, including videos, music files, movies, images, files, and documents. This is a common AWS cloud support engineer interview question that can be asked during the main portion of your interview.


BlockChain Interview Question and Answers

Ques: 2). In what way does Amazon Web Services appear to be ideal?


This is a very basic but common AWS Cloud Support Engineer interview question, and the candidate's response can be stated as follows:

The Amazon Web Servers are capable of performing a wide range of tasks. Customers can select the level of assistance and support they require from AWS based on the services they desire. Amazon Web Service (AWS) provides the following services:

  • High storage
  • Monitoring & Analytics
  • Security and safety
  • Networking
  • Databases
  • Compute power

These services will always be there for the clients of Amazon Web Services. For more details about the services, you can browse the official web page of Amazon Web Service (AWS).


Ques: 3). What Attracts You To This Position?


I want to help the company grow and level up by providing safe database storage, content distribution, cloud services, and computer power. I've also been keeping up with your company's recent trends, and I've seen that what you're doing is exactly what I'm interested in. I'm excited to be a part of your team. I believe this position will provide me with a tremendous opportunity to help you improve in this field.


Ques: 4). What networking commands do you use on a daily basis to troubleshoot problems?


When working with servers, whether real or virtual, the first command that comes to mind is traceroute, which may be used to find the request response path taken. Tracert is the corresponding command on Windows platforms.

Ping, ipconfig, and ifconfig are some other useful commands that deal with network communication, network addresses, and interface settings.

DNS commands – nslookup, Lookup of /etc/resolv.conf file in Linux systems to get details on DNS


Ques: 5). Tell us about your proudest achievement.


My most significant accomplishment was in my former work as a cloud specialist. I worked for a firm that was experiencing a shortage of cloud professionals at the time. Adding more cloud professionals to the tea sounded expensive because the company was small. I recommended to the company's president how we could automate some tasks. I helped him because he didn't know what to do. Some operations, such as backups at specific intervals and resource pattern monitoring, become simple to automate. At the end of the day, the corporation was able to achieve its goal while spending very little money.


Ques: 6). What do you think the most difficult aspect of this job will be?


Lack of experience and resources will be one of the primary issues that businesses will encounter in the near future. Technology is rapidly advancing as firms continue to shift more workload to the cloud. It's becoming difficult to keep up with the correct tools. This has necessitated further training in order for me to be prepared to deal with these difficulties if they affect our organisation.


Ques: 7). What services does AWS typically provide to its customers?


Everyone knows that Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a very dependable and trusted web service. It's a safe and secure web or cloud services platform that may propel your company to new heights of success. This type of question is the most popular and falls under the category of Amazon Support Engineer interview questions. This means that you must first clear your fundamentals in order to pass or crack this interview. You can find such basic questions among AWS cloud interview questions if you are prepared for an AWS interview.

To assist its clients, AWS provides computational power, database storage, content distribution, and a variety of other related support services. Customers all around the world have already chosen the AWS platform, products, and solutions to develop dependable applications with increased flexibility and reliability. It's a fantastic IT infrastructure platform for both small and large organisations.


Ques: 8). When a person types the domain name into a web browser, how can you bring the website content back to them?


As you may be aware, every website has its own domain name system (DNS). As a result, the DNS and each website would be assigned a unique internet protocol or IP address. When entering a domain name into a web browser, the following scenarios may arise:

  • Your input or signal will be received as a request by the web server hosting services. Following that, the web server hosting firm will undoubtedly respond to your request with appropriate outcomes.
  • When you use a browser, it sends a request to the internet protocol address, which is linked to the domain name automatically.
  • The IP address is sometimes returned to the user by the domain name system.
  • To deliver back the website content to the users, the web browser will contact a domain name system.

The salary of a cloud support engineer in AWS is determined by your abilities and performance during the AWS support interview. So, if you want a higher income in your AWS work, make sure you answer the interviewer's questions properly and confidently.


Ques: 9). Give some instances of typical networking commands you've used.


It's worth noting that the AWS stack is mostly based on Linux, and its cloud design makes it extremely network-dependent. As a result, regardless of your history as a system administrator, database administrator, or bigdata administrator, your AWS interview could be about networking. Learn how to use these basic networking commands:

The first step when a system is unreachable is to ping the host to ensure it is up and functioning.

ping host – This pings the host and output results

Domain related commands as AWS has become preferred hosting for major itnernet based companies, SaaS firms

To get DNS information of the domain use – dig domain

To get whois information on domain use – whois domain

Host reverse lookup – dig -x host

Download file – wget file

To continue stopped download – wget -c file


Ques: 10). What does the term "fault tolerant" mean?


When a set number of failures and issues occur, the fault tolerant process is used to control or manage the faults. It's one of the AWS Cloud's most critical self-healing features. This has become a crucial Amazon AWS cloud support engineer interview question and answer because, while the question appears easy, the answer is really complex.

It is a system property that allows a system to work or continue to work in the face of numerous failures at any moment. It is a computer system capability that makes the work of users much more reliable. Such systems are intended to safeguard any present functional system against numerous failures that may occur at any given time. It ensures that any network or system maintains the needed level of continuity in order to avoid the negative effects of interruptions.


Ques: 11). What exactly is a procedure? In Linux, how do you manage processes: -


When a command is issued in a Linux/Unix based OS, a process is launched or created. In simple terms, an instance of a programme is produced while it is running in an operating system. This is how it works. Process management commands are useful in Linux for managing processes.

ps – this is the commonly used process management command to start with. ps command provides details on currently running active processes.

top – This command provides details on all running processes. ps command lists active processes whereas top lists all the processes (i.e) activity of processor in real-time. This includes details on processor and memory being used.

kill – To kill a process using the process id kill command is used. ps command provides details on process id. To kill a process issue kill pid.

killall proc – This command is same as kill command. To kill all the processes by name proc we can use this


Ques: 12). In Amazon Web Services, Emphasize The Importance Of Buffer.


An Elastic Load Balancer ensures that incoming traffic is spread as efficiently as possible across multiple AWS instances. A buffer will synchronise several components and make the setup more elastic in the event of a burst of load or traffic. The components are prone to receiving and processing requests in an unreliable manner. The buffer produces an equilibrium between diverse devices and crafts them to function at the same rate, allowing for faster service delivery.


Ques: 13). What Is An Amazon Web Services Availability Zone?


A collection of your AWS resources is made up of availability zones (within a region). For high availability and fault tolerance, properly built applications will use several availability zones. Each AZ has a low-latency direct connection to the others, and each AZ is separated from the others to ensure fault tolerance.


Ques: 14). What Happens When A User Types A Domain Name Into A Web Browser? 


A DNS server is contacted by the web browser, which requests the IP address associated with the domain name.

The IP address is returned to the Browser by the DNS server.

A request (for content) is sent by the browser to the IP address associated with the domain name.

The request is received by the web server holding web content, which then provides the web content back to the user.


Ques: 15). What are the various kinds of routing protocols?


The routing protocol is a crucial word that describes how different routers communicate. The routing protocol can be implemented by two nodes in a computer network. The following are some of the most often used routing protocols:

  • Routing information protocols (RIP)
  • Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)
  • Open shortest path first (OSPF)
  • Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
  • Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
  • Intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS)

These are some of the most commonly utilised routing kinds among system users. The interviewer may pose this topic as one of the most typical AWS cloud support engineer interview questions. So, remove your doubts regarding the network, infrastructure, and other related topics before embarking on such interviews.


Ques: 16). What Does The Elasticity Concept Mean For AWS Consumers and Enterprise Users?


Elastic systems allow for the rapid addition and subtraction of servers as demand (user base) on a web application increases and drops. Getting rid of unused servers might save a lot of money.


Ques: 17). What is the primary distinction between a private and a public subnet?


A private subnet normally directs traffic to a NAT instance. In the private subnet, only private IP and internet traffic is routed. A public subnet, on the other hand, requires a public IP address to communicate. The major distinction between a private and a public subnet is this.


Ques: 18). How would you persuade a customer to switch to AWS?


These types of questions might be posed during your interview to assess your mental agility, persuasion power, and speaking ability. As a candidate, you must remain cool and optimistic under such circumstances. If this question is asked during your interview, you must respond honestly. You can state things like "I have experience dealing with such customers" and "I have knowledge and expertise dealing with such consumers," and so on in your response. You can persuade customers by describing the capabilities and advantages of using the AWS cloud. As a result, job candidates can readily respond to this question based on their degree of thinking and speaking ability.


Ques: 19). Do you understand how the internet works in your area?


There are several internet tiers and web servers available all over the world, which serve as the internet's communication path. Without the internet's ingenuity, sharing could not have progressed as quickly as it has. 

Circuit switching is a word used on the internet to describe how the internet works in your current context. Another internet technology is packet switching, which makes it much easier for the internet to communicate or distribute information. This is one of the most common AWS cloud support engineer interview questions because it gives you some fundamental internet knowledge.

Packing switching is the process of separating a single internet server into numerous servers. There is no requirement for a physical path for the computer. The internet's supporting equipment would be sufficient to enable better and more dependable internet sharing among a large number of computers.


Ques: 20). In Linux or UNIX-based operating systems, how can you easily manage processes?


When a user types a command into a Unix operating system, it starts working. When an operating system is started, an instance is created automatically. To manage processes in Linux OS, I would use the PS processing command. This command displays information about the currently running processes and activities. When running Linux, I can also use TOPIS as a process management tool. 

This command can be used to acquire statistics about the operating system's activity. To kill running processes, I would also use the Kill command. In a Linux-based operating system, press Ctrl+Alt+Del to terminate all programmes. I would use the killall command. With these commands, I would be able to take full control of the operating system and manage its processes effectively.



Monday, 15 November 2021

Top 20 UX Design Interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 1). How would you improve our product's user experience(UX)?


Another area where preparation can truly help you succeed in the interview is here. Before you start, look over the product and think about how the user experience could be enhanced. You'll be able to speak in depth about how the interaction design or overall user experience could be enhanced by the time the question comes up.

Ques. 2). What is the difference between UX, UI, and Other Design Disciplines?


For this particular interview, this is a common question.

• The interviewer wants to know if you understand the tasks and responsibilities of a UX designer and how they differ from those of other designers, as well as if you can use UX design concepts to cooperate with other design disciplines. The trick is to first research the roles that this organisation demands, and then put out your answers.

• Try to explain that other disciplines are subsets of UX design and that design disciplines change with products, but that with UX design, the basic structure will remain consistent.

Ques. 3). How are you going to improve our product?


The interviewer wants to know if you did your homework on the job and the firm. If it's a major company, only provide an other answer if it's absolutely necessary, and only in conformity with the company's current trend. Diplomacy can also be used. Don't be scared to express yourself; yet, subtlety and precise language will be highly received. If it's a start-up, avoid criticising the product and instead focus on making it famous. Make sure you're familiar with the intended audience.

Ques. 4). How do you go about working on and processing a design?


You can also show them your portfolio in this scenario. Discuss some of your best work or a favourite design you've developed. This manner, you'll be able to show them how you work. Again, try to explain in terms of your work as a UX designer for that organisation in either situation.

Ques. 5). What is the User Experience (UX)?


When responding to this question, avoid using the standard definition from your textbook. Take a look at the other side of the coin. You've come because you require this position. So consider it from the standpoint of your profession.

Tell them why it's important to the project. Perhaps you could give an intriguing example to demonstrate how well you understand what you're going to perform. Make sure to include user research, information architecture, user interface design, experience strategy, usability, and interaction design in your plan.

Create a scenario in which you may describe how you will design for your audience. What important is that the user experience is centred on the user.

Ques. 6). Have You Run Into Any Issues While Developing Solutions for Your UX Design Project?


It is your responsibility as a UX designer to inform them about how you handle your assignments. Your interviewer wants to know how you work on a project, including your software processes and how you break down each project into smaller pieces before tackling it. You must outline how you set goals for each of your projects, as well as how you do research, produce prototypes, effectively communicate with your team about the goals, and how your team's combined efforts will lead to the final product.

You can tell them about a specific experience you had while working on a particularly difficult project. Tell them what went wrong, why it happened the way it did, how you fixed it, and how you'd use your knowledge in the future.

Ques. 7). How do you go about identifying the features you'd like to include in your design?


This is one of the most often asked questions in UX design interviews. Make sure you're ready for this. Specifically, they want to know if you can validate or reject a theory. This is to see how you came up with a different answer.

This is a difficult question to answer. It could be asked in a variety of situations. If this question was posed in the context of developing a new piece of software, you can always express your thoughts on what the minimum viable product should be (MVP).

You can concentrate on the principles of product strategy if it centres around an existing product. You can think about the response in terms of 'who the user is,' 'what are the aims of your user,' 'will the user be concerned about the feature, and how competent is the feature of fixing problems,' and so on.

This is where user research can be used to confirm design decisions. A great deal of user data aids designers in determining what has to be done next. If you have adequate data and a clear image of the user's goals, you can figure out which aspects are the most in line with those goals.

Ques. 8). What do you think the next big thing in UX will be?


They want to know how well you know what you're doing and whether you're thinking about what might happen in the future.

This is an excellent opportunity for you to demonstrate what you know and what you excel at. You could discuss new technologies that can help convert a design to code and save a lot of time.

On blogs like UXBooth, Design Modo, Intercom blog, User Testing blog, and others, you can always get inspiration and ideas on what drives and inspires you.

There are plenty additional online resources where you may get ideas for the latest trends and inspiration for what you might be asked in your next UX interview. Keep an eye out for motivation.

Ques. 9). What is "Design Thinking" and how does it work?


With the recent shift in the kind of employment people are choosing to explore their creative and imaginative sides, the UI/UX Design sector is the greatest option and has been fast growing. People are interested in UI/UX Design employment because of the high demand, as firms recognise the importance of designers in their strategy teams. The top ten UX UI designer interview questions are listed below.

Companies are recruiting more UI/UX designers to produce products that help them achieve their objectives while also meeting the expectations of their customers.

Companies have hired more UX designers as a result of the present COVID-19 issue.

Even if a person has excellent UI/UX design talents, they must have excellent communication skills to impress the interviewer. The online interview system has undoubtedly made it more difficult to communicate with the interviewer.

The interview process is a vital stage in getting a job as a UI/UX designer since it evaluates your logical reasoning, problem-solving ability, and creative thinking abilities, which are the most significant qualities of a UX designer, in addition to your portfolio.

Ques. 10). What is the difference between UI and UX design?


It appears to be a too broad and fundamental inquiry. Right? Just keep in mind that the interviewer does not want you to give a textbook definition to this question.

Use a basic example from your everyday life and describe it in a way that even a layperson may comprehend. For example, two teacups, one with a handle and the other without. Explain why the user prefers one cup over the other. Let the interviewer know that the major goal of UX design is to improve and enhance the consumer experience. The greatest way to demonstrate UX Design is to use real-world examples.

Ques. 11). How do you go about designing? Describe the situation in your own words.


Make sure you don't take the easy way out here. Simply provide the interviewer with a basic knowledge of the generic process and completely define it in your own words. He or she is curious about your approach to the procedure. Ensure that the research strategy is communicated. Discuss the design process with the interviewer and explain why you chose to design things the way you did. Finally, discuss testing and customer feedback. What methods did you use to test your design?

Explain your definition of UX design and how you see it in relation to people's requirements, as well as the necessity of getting to know the people you're designing for. As a UX designer, you must consider consumer feedback and tailor your product accordingly.

Also, incorporate some of the language features that designers use (not jargon). Describe how you moved from simple sketches (e.g., on a scrap of paper) to complex prototypes (e.g., using Adobe XD or Figma) to interactive prototypes. How many prototype revisions were there, and how did they differ from the final product?

Ques. 12). What is "Design Thinking" and how does it work?


Design Thinking is an important word that all UX designers should be familiar with, and it might be a knowledge testing question that is also vital for job selection. Design thinking is a method of problem-solving that is both practical and creative. It's all about gaining insight into your target audience's unmet wants. It's a type of solution-based procedure with the goal of achieving a positive future outcome.

Instead of going completely textbook here, say that it's a method in which people come first, and their preferences, needs, and behaviour affect the entire product design process.As a result, incorporate the following basic steps in your summary: -

1. Take advice from others.

2. Look for trends

3. Principles of Design

4. Make something concrete

5. Constantly iterate

Take a case study that you completed and explain the various stages of the process as well as the methodologies that you used at each step. Remember to explain the "Why" behind each activity as you go through the process.

Ques. 13). Failure of UX projects. What did you discover?


Remember that being a UX designer entails a lot of problem solving. As a result, make sure to lead the interviewer through the process. The interviewer will assess your problem-solving abilities, so remain calm and explain what, why, when, and how the project failed.

Address the problem and the grounds for its occurrence. Also, if you made a mistake, accept it and be honest about it. Designers value forthrightness. Giving a failure-related lesson demonstrates your integrity and commitment to your craft.

Ques. 14). Do you work well with others?


It's a question that practically every interviewer asks. Don't go too far with your response to this question. Instead, staying somewhere in the middle is always a good choice. If you concentrate on your own job, the interviewers may conclude that you are not suited to operate in a team environment.

As a result, attempt to frame your response by stating that while you appreciate working in collaborative workplaces, you know how to prioritise tasks and set your own deadlines when given individual responsibility. This will demonstrate that you aren't prone to extremes and can work in a variety of settings.

Ques. 15). What are some of your UX design inspirations?


When answering this question, be sincere and truthful. Do not be bashful about talking about design podcasts, blog posts, online chats, or in-person meetups. There is no right or incorrect response to this question because each designer finds inspiration in his or her own unique method.

Don't say something that you don't mean. Saying that you read all of the latest novels when you don't is a bad option because you won't be able to answer a specific follow-up inquiry in this scenario. Make things as simple as possible for yourself.

Ques. 16). Tell me about a time when a project didn't go according to plan. What did you do to make it better?


Interviewers frequently ask, "Tell me about a time when...", and you may be asked for multiple "times when." In this case, the interviewer is interested in learning more about your problem-solving abilities. They'll also want to see if you can maintain your composure under pressure. Use historical instances. Everyone has been dealt with a difficult undertaking at some point in their lives.

Consider bringing up a period when there was a snag in the process, budget cuts, or unforeseen circumstances. However, avoid pointing fingers. Also, make sure you don't offer an example when the problem was caused by your own irresponsibility.

Ques. 17). What are three of your greatest assets?


This is the time to brag about yourself. Just make sure that your skills match what the organisation is seeking for. We recommend going over the job description again to prepare for this question. Consider the following job description from Nextdoor in San Francisco:

Nextdoor is looking for someone who can develop "extremely engaging, enjoyable, and user-centered experiences," as you can see. They're looking for someone who can "guide team members" and "take part in cross-functional brainstorming, discussion, and design reviews." As a result, you may list your top three strengths as follows:

Empathy allows you to take a step back, set your biases aside, and prioritise the customer's requirements.

Leadership: At your previous position, you mentored several junior designers and enjoyed seeing them progress.

Collaboration: You enjoy discussing with other teams because each one has a unique set of skills and adds something new to the table.

When an interviewer asks about your strengths, you may expect them to inquire about your flaws as well.

Ques. 18). What is your greatest flaw?


It may seem paradoxical to tell a potential employer something you're not good at. It is, however, a common query. If at all feasible, frame your responses as good flaws. Take a look at NextDoor's job description in San Francisco to discover what qualifications they're seeking for:

They're looking for someone who can handle a "fast-paced startup," as you can see. This is code for "there's a lot going on and a lot of change," therefore one flaw may be: "If I'm not challenged or kept active, I grow bored."

This demonstrates to the interviewer that you can work in a fast-paced, demanding workplace. Alternatively, you may say:

"It's been suggested that I send too many emails outside of business hours."

This demonstrates that you are a hard worker who is always on, even when you are at home. (However, be sure it's the job you want!)

Ques. 19). How Do You Deal With Negative Feedback?


Say more than "well." Instead, explain you're open to all kinds of comments as long as it helps you improve as a UX designer. Give a few of examples of comments you've gotten on a project and how you dealt with it.

You could mention a prior supervisor who was quick to give critical input, but you preferred to call it "constructive criticism." Let's say you'd rather get input from internal sources than from actual customers once a product launches. You might inform the interviewer that you and your bosses are all on the same team and that you'd like to talk about anything you could improve on.

Ques. 20). Tell me about a time when you disagreed with a recommendation made by your team. What exactly did you do?


The best replies are those that are based on data. Keep that in mind. When possible, discuss how data and proven results can be used to make smart recommendations and business decisions.

In this case, you should discuss whether the recommendation was founded on empirical evidence or was entirely subjective. If possible, give an example of a subjective recommendation (e.g., "the boss likes the colour pink, so we're making the button pink").For instance, you may remark that your user research led you to disagree with the team's recommendation. Perhaps you've observed individuals engaging with prototypes and noticed that they prefer the colour blue over the colour pink. If possible, propose conducting another round of usability testing to compare a pink button against a blue button in an A/B test. Subjective opinions are less effective at resolving disagreements than objective data.

Monday, 23 December 2019

Top 20 AWS (Amazon Web Services ) Interview Questions & Answers

Ques: 1. What is Data warehouse in AWS?

Ans: Data ware house is a central repository for data that can come from one or more sources. Organization typically use data warehouse to compile reports and search the database using highly complex queries. Data warehouse also typically updated on a batch schedule multiple times per day or per hour compared to an OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) relational database that can be updated thousands of times per second.

Ques: 2. What is NAT Instance and NAT Gateway?

NAT instance: A network address translation (NAT) instance is an Amazon Linux machine Image (AMI) that is designed to accept traffic from instances within a private subnet, translate the source IP address to the Public IP address of the NAT instance and forward the traffic to IWG.

NAT Gateway: A NAT gateway is an Amazon managed resources that is designed to operate just like a NAT instance, but it is simpler to manage and highly available within an availability Zone. To allow instance within a private subnet to access internet resources through the IGW via a NAT gateway.

Ques: 3. What type of performance can you expect from Elastic Block Storage? How do you back it up and enhance the performance?

Ans: Performance of an elastic block storage varies i.e. it can go above the SLA performance level and after that drop below it. SLA provides an average disk I/O rate which can at times frustrate performance experts who yearn for reliable and consistent disk throughput on a server. Virtual AWS instances do not behave this way. One can backup EBS volumes through a graphical user interface like elasticfox or use the snapshot facility through an API call. Also, the performance can be improved by using Linux software raid and striping across four volumes.

Ques: 4. How will you access the data on EBS in AWS?

Ans: Elastic block storage as the name indicates provides persistent, highly available and high-performance block level storage that can be attached to a running EC2 instance. The storage can formatted and mounted as a file system or the raw storage can be accessed directly.

Ques: 5. Is it possible to vertically scale on an Amazon Instance?  If yes, how?

Ans: Following are the steps to scale an Amazon Instance vertically –

  1. Spin up a larger Amazon instance than the existing one. 
  2. Pause the existing instance to remove the root ebs volume from the server  and discard. 
  3. Stop the live running instance and detach its root volume. 
  4. Make a note of the unique device ID and attach that root volume to the new server. 
  5. Start the instance again.

Ques: 6. What is the total number of buckets that can be created in AWS by default?

Ans: 100 buckets can be created in each of the AWS accounts. If additional buckets are required, increase the bucket limit by submitting a service limit increase.

Ques: 7. How will you configure an instance with the application and its dependencies, and make it ready to serve traffic?

Ans: You can achieve this with the use of life cycle hooks. They are powerful as they let you pause the creation or termination of an instance so that you can sneak peak in and perform custom actions like configuring the instance, downloading the required files, and any other steps that are required to make the instance ready. Every auto scaling group can have multiple life cycle hooks.

Ques: 8. What are some of the key best practices for security in Amazon EC2?

  • Create individual IAM (Identity and Access Management) users to control access to your AWS recourses. 
  • Creating separate IAM user provides separate credentials for every user making it possible to assign different permissions to each user based on the access requirements. 
  • Secure the AWS Root account and its access keys. 
  • Harden EC2 instances by disabling unnecessary services and applications by installing only necessary software and tools on EC2 instances. 
  • Grant least privileges by opening permissions that are required to perform a specific task and not more than that. Additional permissions can be granted as required. 
  • Define and review the security group rules on a regular basis. 
  • Have a well-defined strong password policy for all the users. 
  • Deploy anti-virus software on the AWS network to protect it from Trojans, Viruses, etc.

Ques: 9. What are the important features of a classic load balancer in EC2?

Ans: The high availability feature ensures that the traffic is distributed among EC2 instances in single or multiple availability zones. This ensures high scale of availability for incoming traffic.
Classic load balancer can decide whether to route the traffic or not based on the results of health check.
You can implement secure load balancing within a network  by creating security groups in a VPC.
Classic load balancer supports sticky sessions which ensure that the traffic from a user is always routed to the same instance for a seamless experience.

Ques: 10. What happens when you reboot an EC2 instance?

Ans: Rebooting an instance is just like rebooting a PC. You do not return to image’s original state; however, the contents of the hard disk are same as before the reboot.

Ques: 11. What Are the main features of Amazon Cloud Front?

Ans: Amazon Cloud Front is a web service that speeds up delivery of your static and dynamic web content, such as .html, .css, .js, and image files, to your users. CloudFront delivers your content through a universal network of data centres called edge locations

Ques: 12. Explain storage for Amazon Ec2 Instance?

Ans: An instance store is a provisional storing type located on disks that are physically attached to a host machine. … This article will present you to the AWS instance store storage type, compare it to AWS Elastic Block Storage (AWS EBS), and show you how to backup data stored on instance stores to AWS EBS
Amazon SQS is a message queue service used by scattered requests to exchange messages through a polling model, and can be used to decouple sending and receiving components

Ques: 13. What is AWS Certificate Manager?

Ans: AWS Certificate Manager is an administration that lets you effortlessly arrangement, oversee, and send open and private Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) endorsements for use with AWS administrations and your inward associated assets. SSL/TLS declarations are utilized to anchor arrange interchanges and set up the character of sites over the Internet and additionally assets on private systems. AWS Certificate Manager expels the tedious manual procedure of obtaining, transferring, and reestablishing SSL/TLS endorsements.

Ques: 14. What is the AWS Key Management Service?

Ans: AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is an overseen benefit that makes it simple for you to make and control the encryption keys used to scramble your information. … AWS KMS is additionally coordinated with AWS CloudTrail to give encryption key use logs to help meet your inspecting, administrative and consistence needs.

Ques: 15. What is Amazon EMR?

Ans: Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR) is one such administration that gives completely oversaw facilitated Hadoop system over Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).

Ques: 16. What is Amazon Kinesis Firehose?

Ans: Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose is the least demanding approach to dependably stack gushing information into information stores and examination devices. … It is a completely overseen benefit that consequently scales to coordinate the throughput of your information and requires no continuous organization.

Ques: 17. What Is Amazon CloudSearch and its highlights?

Ans: Amazon CloudSearch is a versatile cloud-based hunt benefit that frames some portion of Amazon Web Services (AWS). CloudSearch is normally used to incorporate tweaked seek abilities into different applications. As indicated by Amazon, engineers can set a pursuit application up and send it completely in under 60 minutes.

Ques: 18. What is the Difference between the Service Role and SAML Federated Role?

Ans: Service Role are meant for usage of AWS Services and based upon the policies attached to it, it will have the scope to do its task. Example : In case of automation we can create a service role and attached to it.
Federated Roles are meant for User Access and getting access to AWS as per designed role. Example: We can have a federated role created for our office employee and corresponding to that a Group will be created in the AD and user will be added to it.

Ques: 19. Distinguish between Scalability and Flexibility?

Ans: Cloud computing offers industries flexibility and scalability when it comes to computing needs:
Flexibility. Cloud computing agrees your workers to be more flexible – both in and out of the workplace. Workers can access files using web-enabled devices such as smartphones, laptops and notebooks. In this way, cloud computing empowers the use of mobile technology.
One of the key assistances of using cloud computing is its scalability. Cloud computing allows your business to easily expensive or downscale your IT requests as and when required. For example, most cloud service workers will allow you to increase your existing resources to accommodate increased business needs or changes. This will allow you to support your commercial growth without exclusive changes to your present IT systems.

 Ques: 20 What is SES, SQS and SNS?

Ans: SES (Simple Email Service): SES is SMTP server provided by Amazon which is designed to send bulk mails to customers in a quick and cost-effective manner.SES does not allows to configure mail server.

SQS (Simple Queue Service): SQS is a fast, reliable and scalable, fully managed message queuing service. Amazon SQS makes it simple and cost Effective. It’s temporary repository for messages to waiting for processing and acts as a buffer between the component producer and the consumer.

SNS (Simple Notification Service): SNS is a web service that coordinates and manages the delivery or sending of messages to recipients.