Showing posts with label IOT. Show all posts
Showing posts with label IOT. Show all posts

November 17, 2021

Top 20 Edge Computing Interview Questions & Answers

Ques: 1). What is edge computing, and how does it work?


With the passage of time, technology tends to become smaller and faster. As a result, previously "dumb" items such as light bulbs and door locks can now contain modest CPUs and RAM. They can perform calculations and provide information on usage. This computing enables analytics to be performed at the network's most granular levels, often known as the edge.

Edge computing puts processing power closer to the end user or the data source. In practise, this implies relocating computation and storage from the cloud to a local location, such as an edge server. Read more about edge computing in our overview.


Ques: 2). Is the footprint of this edge service appropriate for my needs?


Different edge computing applications may have drastically different needs for geographic coverage and proximity. Consider the requirements of your project. Edge computer nodes could be located within or near each factory, but only for a limited number of locations.

The creator of an augmented reality programme that customers can use in stores to get real-time product ratings and pricing comparisons might want edge nodes on every street corner, or as near to that as possible.


Ques: 3). Why Edge Computing?


This technique optimises bandwidth efficiency by analysing data at the edge, as opposed to the cloud, which requires data transfer from the IoT, which requires high bandwidth, making it beneficial for application in remote locations at low cost. It enables smart applications and devices to react to data practically simultaneously, which is critical in business and self-driving automobiles. It can process data without putting it on a public cloud, which assures complete security.

While on an extended network, data may become corrupt, compromising the data's dependability for companies to use. The utilisation of cloud computing is limited by data computation at the edge.


Ques: 4).  What are the main Key Benefits and services Of Edge Computing?


  • Faster response time.
  • Security and Compliance.
  • Cost-effective Solution.
  • Reliable Operation With Intermittent Connectivity.

Edge Cloud Computing Services:

  • IOT (Internet Of Things)
  • Gaming
  • Health Care
  • Smart City
  • Intelligent Transportation
  • Enterprise Security


Ques: 5). Is there really a need for that much computation at the edge?


Another way to phrase this question is: Which data-intensive tasks would benefit the most from network offloading? Not all applications will be eligible, and many will require data aggregation that is beyond the capability of local computing. Look for situations where processing data closer to the consumer or data source would be more efficient. These three, according to Steven Carlini, are the best prospects for edge computing.


Ques: 6). Is there really a need for that much computation at the edge?


Another way to phrase this question is: Which data-intensive tasks would benefit the most from network offloading? Not all applications will be eligible, and many will require data aggregation that is beyond the capability of local computing. Look for situations where processing data closer to the consumer or data source would be more efficient. These three, according to Steven Carlini, are the best prospects for edge computing.


Ques: 7). How much storage should be available at the edge?


Large volumes of data that would have been saved in the cloud will now be stored locally thanks to edge computing. While storage technology is inexpensive, management costs are not. Will the cost of keeping and managing device data at the edge justify the move? How will edge devices be protected?

Processing data at the edge, rather than uploading raw data to the cloud, may be a better way to secure user privacy. Edge computing's dispersed nature, on the other hand, renders intelligent edge devices more susceptible to malware outbreaks and security breaches.


Ques: 8). Why is it important to concentrate on edge computing right now?


Edge is ripe now, thanks to new technology and demand for new applications. Consumers seek reduced latency for content-driven experiences, while businesses need local processing for security and redundancy. If you're interested in learning more about where edge computing is going, check out our article on the future of edge computing.


Ques: 9). What kind of apps, services, or business strategies would your edge computing platform deliver?


Determine which workloads should run on the edge rather than in a central location, if you haven't previously, says Yugal Joshi, vice president of Everest Group. IT leaders should also look into whether any existing initiatives (such as IoT or AI) could benefit from edge processing.


Ques: 10). Will the organization's operating model have to alter as a result of edge computing?


The usage of edge computing to support operational technologies is common. In such circumstances, technology leaders must determine who will own and manage the edge environment, whether greater alignment between the operating and information technology groups is required, and how performance will be monitored.


Ques: 11). What is the distinction between edge computing, cloud computing, and fog computing?


Data collection, storage, and calculation are all done on edge devices in edge computing.

Cloud computing is the storing and computation of data on servers that are primarily more powerful and connected to edge devices. The edge devices transfer their data across the network to the cloud, where it is processed by a more sophisticated system.

Fog computing is a hybrid of the two approaches. The cloud servers are sometimes too far away from the edge devices for data analytics to happen quickly enough. As a result, a fog computing intermediary device is set up as a hub between two fog computing devices. This device does the computation and analytics required by the edge device.


Ques: 12). What role does a database play in edge computing?


A device on the edge must be able to store and manage the data it generates efficiently. These devices have very little CPU and storage space, and they may power cycle frequently and unpredictably. A database system is the only means to store and use data in a secure manner. Additionally, the data may need to be easily transferred to a cloud system or accessed from a remote location. A database system  with SymmetricDS can provide a developer with a simple set of APIs to accomplish this.


Ques: 13). What is the sturdiness of this edge solution? How will the edge provider ensure that the application recovers if it fails?


As businesses move beyond experimenting with edge computing to leveraging it for more significant applications, questions like these will become increasingly essential. To mitigate the risks of the innovative edge components, IT architects will want to use tried-and-true technologies whenever possible. Service level agreements and quality of service guarantees are important to business leaders. Even so, there will be setbacks.


Ques: 14). What is our long-term plan for managing edge resources?


It's difficult enough to manage network and computer resources that are split between company data centres and the cloud. The difficulty could be amplified with edge computing.

You should inquire about what systems management resources an edge service provider provides, as well as how well-known systems management software vendors are addressing the unique aspects of edge computing.

There's also the issue of labour division: how much control will the enterprise have over how software is deployed to and updated on edge nodes? How much of that will it entrust to a third-party service provider?Will the enterprise even have the option of exercising control over the management of cloud nodes, or will the service provider consider that its own business?


Ques: 15). What safeguards do we have in place to avoid becoming enslaved to this cutting-edge solution?


For the most part, open source software and open standards have prevailed in the cloud, and they're likely to win on the edge for the same reasons, according to Drobot. Open internet technologies are the most adaptable and portable, making them popular among clients as well as cloud providers who need to improve their solutions on a regular basis. He predicts that the same dynamics will apply to edge computing. The biggest exceptions so far have been related to edge computing resource metering and billing technology. Technology for managing edge computing that is specific to a particular vendor’s environment could make it harder to move your applications elsewhere.


Ques: 16). How might edge computing aid in the real-time visualisation of my business?


Because data is handled in parallel across several edge nodes, edge computing allows industrial data to be processed more efficiently. Furthermore, because data is computed at the edge, delay from a round trip across the local network, to the cloud, and back is not required. Edge computing is hence well suited for real-time applications. Edge computing can assist in the prevention of equipment failure by detecting and forecasting when faults may occur, allowing operators to respond earlier. Real-time KPIs can provide decision makers with a complete picture of their system's state. Identifying which information is most valuable to receive in real-time can scope edge computing projects to focus on what’s important.


Ques: 17). How can I put Machine Learning to work at the edge?


At the edge, machine learning algorithms can reduce raw sensor data by removing duplicates and other noise. Machine Learning can greatly reduce the amount of data that has to be transferred over local networks or kept in the cloud or other database systems by identifying useful information and discarding the rest. Machine learning in edge installations ensures cheaper running costs and more efficient operation of downstream applications.


Ques: 18). Where do you see possibilities for integrating with existing systems?


According to a survey conducted by IDC Research, 60% of IT workers have five or more analytical databases, and 25% have more than ten. Edge computing allows these external systems to be integrated into a single real-time experience. Edge computing systems can easily consider other systems as new nodes in the system by employing bridges and connections, whereas integration has previously been a big difficulty. As a result, seeing integration opportunities early on can help you get the most out of your edge computing solution.


Ques: 19). What kinds of costly incidents may be avoided if I was alerted sooner?


Edge computing architectures' real-time advantages can help minimise costly downtime and other unintended consequences. You may more effectively prioritise the desired objectives for your edge computing project by analysing which events can be the most disruptive to your organisation. Edge computing can assist identify the conditions that cause failure in real-time and enable operators to intervene sooner, whether your objective is to reduce downtime, develop an effective predictive maintenance strategy, or ensure that logistical operations are made more efficient.


Ques: 20). What can I do to make it more secure?


Edge deployments are complicated, as each node adds to the vulnerability surface area. As a result, security planning is vital to the success of any edge computing project. Edge computing enables the encryption of critical data at the point of origin, ensuring an end-to-end security solution. Additional security steps can be taken by separating edge services from the rest of the programme, guaranteeing that even if one node is hacked, the remainder of the application can continue to function normally.

January 28, 2020

Top 20 Internet of Things (IOT) Interview Questions & Answers

Ques: 1. Why does the need of Internet of Things (IoT) arises?

Ans: The real value of the IoT is not about making the lights turn on or off when the vehicle reaches its parking bay, rather the data that the connected devices gather about its users. The data collected later can allow the consumers, businesses, and connected cities to work in a more efficient manner. 

Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of interconnected objects that uses embedded technology to sense and communicate with their internal states or the external environments. IoT is all about connecting the objects (devices) over the Internet and enabling them to interact with us and other objects.

Ques: 2. What are the main components of the Internet of Things (IoT) system?

Ans: IoT has three main components are as follows:

  • Devices embedded with sensors. 
  • Network connectivity 
  • Data storage application/system

Ques: 3. How does IoT differ from the IIoT?

Internet of Things(IOT): In this system, the connection is between devices and gadgets that are used by average consumers in their day-to-day life. Examples could be washing machines, refrigerators, electrical bulbs, etc. These devices are connected to the Internet and work according to the way they are programmed to and prompted to.

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT): With IIoT, massive industrial items and systems are connected via the Internet to carry out functions without human intervention. The alarm systems in hospitals or the automatic shutting off of switches in industrial plants are examples of IIoT.

Ques: 4. Do you have any relatable examples of the way in which IoT impacts our everyday lives?

Ans: Since IoT’s primary aim is to connect devices and make them function intuitively according to the needs of the situation; they are used in a variety of devices that we use in our daily lives, which help us coordinate functions better. We no longer have to spend extra time to manually handle these devices, which means a lot of time saved.

Since connectivity with other devices is at the heart of the concept of IoT. IoT - enabled devices not only carry out their function in isolation, but also coordinate with others in the network to make work a lot more efficient than earlier devices could. For instance, while a standalone alarm clock can only wake you up, in an IoT ecosystem, based on your early morning traits, IoT could also heat the coffee decoction for you or put the geyser on.

Ques: 15. What importance does cybersecurity have for IoT?

Ans: Cybersecurity is a matter of serious concern wherever the Net is involved. So, with its heavy reliance on the Internet, the IoT is sure to make cybersecurity a very crucial area of its work. 

Corporations and governments will have to be on their toes in anticipating and preventing cyber attacks on the IoT. This calls for a very strongly coordinated, robust response from all the players involved because a disruption in any link in the chain can throw the whole ecosystem out of gear.

Ques: 16. Assess the impact the IoT will have on the healthcare sector

Ans: The IoT is extremely well-suited for the healthcare sector. With its ability to coordinate large volumes of data seamlessly and across devices; the IoT can be a great facilitator for the healthcare industry. At a micro level, it will help to generate a lot of data from the health-conscious user, such as pulse, blood pressure, calorie count, etc. from individual users. At the macro level, it will make tele-medicine a lot more efficient by being able to coordinate data across devices in far-flung locations.

Ques: 17. What do you understand by the Internet of Everything and what are the elements that go into it?

Ans: The Internet of Everything (IoE) can be understood as an extension of the IoT. While the IoT connects devices with one another, IoE aims at connecting devices with people and help them take smart decisions by coordinating with them. These are some of the elements that go into IoE:

Human beings: The IoE facilitates higher and smoother coordination between humans and devices such as social networks, computers, healthcare gadgets, teaching aids, etc.

Procedure: This aspect of the IoE seeks to automate processes that go into most things managed by humans, ranging from handheld devices to large industrial manufacturing processes.

Things: This is the set of devices or things used by humans that connect to the Net and help share information. sensors, actuators, certain types of medical devices or meters can be examples of things in IoE.

Information: Obviously, this is at the center of the IoE, as much as it is in the IoT. Algorithms function smartly to help make sense of the huge loads of data that devices and other things generate.

Ques: 18. What influences will the internet of things (IoT) have on monetary growth?

Ans: Several monetary analyses have anticipated that the IoT will make contributions extensively to monetary growth over the following decade, however, the predictions range substantially in magnitude. The modern-day international iot market has been valued at approximately $2 trillion, with estimates of its predicted fee over the following five to ten years varying from $4 trillion to $11 trillion.

Ques: 19. What are the elements of the Internet of Everything?
Human beings: People will continue to attach through gadgets, like smartphones, computers, and drugs, in addition to social networks, which includes FaceBook and LinkedIn.

Procedure: This includes evolving era, business, organizational and different tactics in order to be wished in an effort to control and, to a massive extent, automate the explosive growth in connections and the resultant accumulation, analysis and conversation of information with a view to be inevitable inside the internet of the entirety.

Things: It consists of many physical objects like sensors, meters, actuators, and other styles of gadgets that can be connected to any item, that are or can be capable of connecting to the community and sharing statistics. These items will sense and supply more facts, respond to manipulate inputs, and provide more statistics to assist human beings and machines make choices.

Information: Today, devices commonly accumulate statistics and circulate it over the internet to a valuable source, in which it is analyzed and processed. Such statistics is predicted to surpass today’s biggest social media data set by means of every other order of importance.

Ques: 20. What is Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Protocol for an Internet of Things (IoT)?
Ans: Nokia originally introduced this protocol as wibree in 2006. Additionally known as Bluetooth smart this protocol presents the same range coverage with a good deal of decreased strength intake because of the unique Bluetooth. It has comparable bandwidth with narrow spacing as utilized by Zigbee. Low electricity latency and decrease complexity makeable greater appropriate to include into low-cost microcontrollers.