Showing posts with label cloudtrail. Show all posts
Showing posts with label cloudtrail. Show all posts

April 20, 2022

Top 20 AWS Cloud Security Interview Questions and Answers


In today's world, cloud security is one of the most important features of the cloud. Every day, more sophisticated attacks emerge, and qualified cloud security professionals are in short supply. As a result, for many people, a career in AWS cloud security could be a solid decision. If you want to pursue a job in AWS security, you'll need to prepare for AWS security interview questions.

You must be familiar with the many types of questions that can be asked in an AWS security interview. In terms of tasks and responsibilities, AWS security roles are quite diverse. The majority of AWS security interview questions, on the other hand, focus solely on the fundamentals of cloud security.

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Ques. 1): What does AWS mean by cloud security?


With our broad services and capabilities, AWS assists you in meeting core security and compliance needs such as data location, protection, and confidentiality. You may use AWS to automate manual security processes so you can focus on growing and innovating your company.

Data protection is a crucial part of cloud security policy; the main concerns are data unavailability, data loss, and the disclosure of sensitive information. Individuals operating inside the organization's security policy should be taken into account as well.

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Ques. 2): What logging features does AWS Security have out of the box?


AWS CloudTrail is a service provided by Amazon Web Services.

AWS CloudTrail:

This is a service that allows you to manage your AWS account's governance, compliance, operational auditing, and risk auditing. You can track, monitor, and retain account activity connected to actions throughout your AWS infrastructure with CloudTrail.

AWS Config:

AWS Config is a service that allows you to inspect, audit, and review your AWS resource setups. Config monitors and records your AWS resource configurations in real time, allowing you to compare recorded configurations to desired configurations automatically.

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Ques. 3): What are the advantages of using AWS Security?


Keep Your Data Safe: The AWS infrastructure is built with strong guarantees to help protect your privacy. All data is stored in Amazon Web Services (AWS) data centres, which are exceptionally secure.

Comply with all legal requirements: In its infrastructure, AWS manages a number of compliance programmes. This means that some of your compliance requirements have been met.

Spend Less: Using AWS data centres will save you money. Maintain the greatest degree of protection without the headaches of owning and operating a property.

Scale Easily: The security of your AWS Cloud account grows in tandem with your usage. Regardless of the size of your company, the AWS infrastructure is designed to keep your data safe.

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Ques. 4): What is a DDoS assault, and how can it be mitigated?


The term DDoS refers to a distributed denial of service attack. It is a type of cyber assault that targets key systems in order to interrupt network service or connectivity, causing users of the targeted resource to experience a denial of service.

The native tools that can help you deny the DDoS attacks on your AWS services are:

AWS Shield


Amazon Route53

Amazon CloudFront



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Ques. 5): What are AWS Security Bulletins and what do they do?


Customers receive security bulletins when one or more vulnerabilities are discovered. Customers are in charge of determining the effect of any actual or possible security risk in their environment.

It may be required to warn customers about security and privacy events with AWS services from time to time, regardless of how precisely constructed the services are. Security bulletins will be posted below. You may also stay up with security announcements by subscribing to our Security Bulletin RSS Feed.

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Ques. 6): Which of the following are best practices for security in AWS?


·         Create a strong password for your AWS resources.

·         Use a group email alias with your AWS account.

·         Enable multi-factor authentication.

·         Set up AWS IAM users, groups, and roles for daily account access.

·         Delete your account's access keys.

·         Enable CloudTrail in all AWS regions.

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Ques. 7): What is the purpose of an IoT device defender?


Amazon IoT Device Defender connects devices to AWS Services and other devices, as well as securing, processing, and acting on device data. It also allows apps to engage with devices even when they are offline, allowing you to create low-cost Alexa built-in devices.

It is a fully managed service that allows us to continuously monitor security data from devices and AWS IoT Core for deviations from expected behaviours for each device.

AWS Cloudwatch interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 8): What platforms are available for large-scale cloud computing?


Apache Hadoop and Map Reduce are the platforms for large-scale cloud computing.

Apache Hadoop — Apache Hadoop is a Java-based open source platform. With each file system, it establishes a pool of computers. The data elements are then grouped and hash techniques identical to those used in the previous step are used. After that, duplicates of the existing files are made.

Map Reduce is a piece of software developed by Google to help with distributed computing. It takes a vast amount of data and various cloud resources and distributes it across a number of additional computers called clusters. Both organised and unstructured data can be handled using Map Reduce.

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Ques. 9): What is Amazon Web Services (AWS) Identity and Access Management (IAM)?


You can use AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) to safeguard access to AWS services and resources. You may use IAM to create and manage AWS users and groups, as well as use permissions to grant or deny access to AWS services. IAM is a feature of your AWS account that comes at no extra cost.

Without needing to share long-term access keys, IAM roles allow you to assign access with defined rights to trustworthy organisations. IAM roles can be used to grant access to IAM users within your account, IAM users under a different AWS account, or an AWS service like EC2.

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Ques. 10): Explain What "eucalyptus" Means In Cloud Computing.


"Eucalyptus" is an open source cloud computing software architecture that is used to construct cloud computing clusters. It is employed in the creation of public, hybrid, and private clouds. It can turn your own data centre into a private cloud and allows you to share its capabilities with a variety of other businesses.

AWS Cloud Interview Questions and Answers Part - 1

Ques. 11): What Are The Security Laws Which Are Implemented To Secure Data In A Cloud ?


The security laws which are implemented to secure data in cloud are:

Processing: Control the data that is being processed correctly and completely in an application

File: It manages and control the data being manipulated in any of the file

Output reconciliation: It controls the data which has to be reconciled from input to output

Input Validation: Control the input data

Security and Backup: It provides security and backup it also controls the security breaches logs

AWS Cloud Interview Questions and Answers Part - 2

Ques. 12): AWS Directory Service is a service provided by Amazon Web Services.


Customers who want to use current Microsoft AD or Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-aware apps in the cloud can use AWS Directory Service, which offers a variety of directory options. Developers that require a directory to handle users, groups, devices, and access have the same options. It makes it simple to connect Amazon EC2 instances to your domain and supports a wide range of AWS and third-party apps and services. It can also serve the majority of small and midsize enterprise use cases.

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Ques. 13): Mention how cloud architecture facilitates automation and transparency in performance.


Cloud design employs a variety of techniques to enable performance transparency and automation. It enables for the management of cloud infrastructure as well as the monitoring of reports. They can also use the cloud architecture to share the application. Automation is a critical component of cloud architecture that aids in improving quality.

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Ques. 14): What is AWS CloudTrail, and how does it work?


AWS CloudTrail is an AWS cloud monitoring solution that aids in the monitoring of AWS cloud deployments. CloudTrail accomplishes this by analysing the history of AWS API calls for the account in question.

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Ques. 15): What exactly is Amazon GuardDuty?


Amazon GuardDuty is a threat detection service that protects AWS accounts and workloads by continuously monitoring harmful activity and unauthorised conduct.

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Ques. 16): What is Amazon CloudWatch, and how does it work?


Amazon CloudWatch is a dependable cloud service that provides a monitoring solution that is guaranteed to be reliable, flexible, and scalable. Users can rapidly get up and running with CloudWatch since the setup, maintenance, and scalability of your monitoring systems and infrastructure is quick.

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Ques. 17): What is the purpose of CloudTrail?


AWS CloudTrail is a service that lets you manage your AWS account's governance, compliance, operational auditing, and risk auditing. CloudTrail allows you to log, monitor, and manage account activity related to actions across your AWS infrastructure.

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Ques. 18): What is the difference between CloudWatch and CloudTrail?


CloudWatch is an AWS resource and application monitoring service, whereas CloudTrail is a web service that logs API activity in your AWS account. In AWS, they're both useful monitoring tools. You can gather and track metrics, collect and monitor log files, and create alarms with CloudWatch.

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Ques. 19):  Define AWS Trusted Advisor in your own words.


AWS Trusted Advisor is an excellent online service that acts as a personalised cloud expert. It can assist you in configuring resources in accordance with best practises. It also extensively examines the AWS environment for any security flaws.

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Ques. 20): What is the purpose of the buffer in Amazon web services?


By synchronising multiple components, the buffer makes the system more robust in terms of managing traffic or load. Components usually receive and handle requests in an uneven manner. The components will be balanced and work at the same pace with the help of the buffer, resulting in speedier services.



November 23, 2021

Top 20 Aws Cloudwatch interview Questions & Answers


Ques: 1). What Is Amazon Cloudwatch and How Does It Work?


CloudWatch is an AWS monitoring service that keeps track of your cloud resources and the applications you run on them. CloudWatch may be used to gather and track metrics, monitor log files, and generate alarms. EC2 instances, DynamoDB tables, and RDS DB instances may all be monitored with CloudWatch.

Amazon CloudWatch is a management tool for system architects, administrators, and developers, and it is part of the Amazon Web Services family.


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Ques: 2). What's the difference between CloudTrail and CloudWatch, and how do I use them?


CloudWatch keeps track of the health and performance of AWS services and resources and generates reports on them. CloudTrail, on the other hand, keeps track of all of the activities that take place in your AWS environment.

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Ques: 3). What platforms are compatible with CloudWatch Logs Agent?


The CloudWatch logs agent is compatible with a wide range of operating systems and platforms. The following is a list of similar items:

  • CentOS
  • Amazon Linux
  • Ubuntu
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux
  • Windows

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Ques: 4). What Are Amazon Cloudwatch Logs, and What Do They Mean?


Using your existing system, application, and custom log files, Amazon CloudWatch Logs allows you to monitor and troubleshoot your systems and applications. You may monitor your logs in near real time with CloudWatch Logs for specific phrases, values, or patterns. You could, for example, set an alarm for the amount of failures in your system logs or look at graphs of web request latency from your application logs. The original log data can then be viewed to determine the source of the problem. You don't have to worry about filling up hard discs because log data may be saved and accessed endlessly in very durable, low-cost storage.

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Ques: 5). What Cloudwatch Access Management Policies Can I Implement?


You can select which CloudWatch actions a user in your AWS Account can execute using CloudWatch's integration with AWS IAM. IAM cannot be used to restrict access to CloudWatch data for individual resources. You can't grant a person access to CloudWatch data for just one group of instances or a single LoadBalancer, for example. Permissions provided by IAM apply to all cloud resources used by CloudWatch. Furthermore, the Amazon CloudWatch command line tools do not support IAM roles.

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Ques: 6). What is a CloudWatch Alarm, and how does it work?


CloudWatch Alarms is a new feature that allows you to monitor CloudWatch metrics and receive warnings when they go outside of the levels (high or low thresholds) you designate. There can be several Alarms for each statistic, each with its own set of actions.

A CloudWatch Alarm's state is always one of three things: OK, ALARM, or INSUFFICIENT DATA. When the metric is inside the permissible range that you've set, the Monitor is in the OK condition. It enters the ALARM state when it hits a particular threshold. When the data needed to make a judgement is absent or incomplete, the monitor enters the INSUFFICIENT DATA state.

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Ques: 7). What Is The Average Metric Retention Period?


The following is how CloudWatch stores metric data:

For 3 hours, data points with a period of less than 60 seconds are available. These data points are bespoke measurements with a high resolution.

Data points with a period of 60 seconds (1 minute) are available for 15 days, 300 seconds (5 minutes) are available for 63 days, and 4) data points with a metric of 3600 seconds (1 hour) are available for 455 days (15 months). Data points with a shorter duration of publication are aggregated together for long-term storage.

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Ques: 8). When should I use a custom metric instead of sending a log to Cloudwatch Logs?


Custom metrics, CloudWatch logs, or both can be used to keep track of your data. If your data, such as OS process or performance measurements, is not already produced in log format, you may want to utilise custom metrics. You may also create your own app or script, or use one offered by an AWS partner. CloudWatch Logs can be used to store and save specific measurements as well as supplementary information.

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Ques: 9). Is There Anything I Can Do With My Cloudwatch Logs?


CloudWatch Logs can monitor and store logs to help you understand and operate your systems and applications better. No code modifications are necessary when using CloudWatch Logs with your logs because your existing log data is used for monitoring.


Ques: 10). What is Amazon CloudWatch Synthetics, and how does it work?


You may use Amazon CloudWatch Synthetics to create canaries, which are programmable scripts that run on a schedule, to monitor your endpoints and APIs. Canaries follow the same paths as customers and do the same actions, allowing you to validate your client experience even when there is no customer activity on your apps. Using canaries, you can notice problems before your customers do.

Synthetic monitoring is a technique for assessing a website or online service's availability, performance, and functionality by mimicking visitor queries.


Ques: 11). Is it possible to use regular expressions with log data?


Regular expressions are not supported by CloudWatch Metric Filters. Consider using Amazon Kinesis and connecting the stream to a regular expression processing engine to handle your log data with regular expressions.


Ques: 12). Canaries in Amazon CloudWatch Synthetics are what they sound like.


Canaries are scripts that are written in Node.js or Python. Users construct Lambda functions in your account using Node.js or Python as a framework. The HTTP and HTTPS protocols are both supported by Canaries.


Ques: 13). How Do I Get My Log Data Back?


The CloudWatch Logs console or the CloudWatch Logs CLI can be used to retrieve any of your log data. The Log Group, Log Stream, and time with which the log events are related are used to obtain them.


Ques: 14). What Are the Different Thresholds I Can Use To Set A Cloudwatch Alarm?


When you create an alarm, you must first select the CloudWatch statistic that it will track. The next step is to select an evaluation period and a statistical value to assess. Set a target value and choose whether the alarm will be triggered if the value is more, equal, or less than that value to create a threshold.


Ques: 15). What is Amazon CloudWatch ServiceLens, and how does it work?


Amazon CloudWatch ServiceLens is a new tool that allows you to visualise and analyse the health, performance, and availability of your applications in a single location. All public AWS Regions that offer AWS-X-Ray support Amazon CloudWatch ServiceLens.


Ques: 16). What are CloudWatch Metric Streams, and how can I use them?


CloudWatch Metric Streams is a feature that lets you broadcast CloudWatch metrics endlessly to a location of your choice with very little setup and administration. It's a completely managed solution that takes care of everything for you, including writing code and maintaining infrastructure. With a few clicks, users can setup a metric stream to destinations like Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). Users might also submit the analytics to a variety of third-party service providers to keep their operational dashboards up to date.


Ques: 17). What Can Amazon Cloudwatch Metrics Tell Me?


CloudWatch allows you to monitor AWS cloud resources as well as the AWS packages you use. EC2 times, EBS volumes, ELBs, Autoscaling agencies, EMR process flows, RDS DB times, DynamoDB tables, ElastiCache clusters, RedShift clusters, OpsWorks stacks, Route 53 fitness assessments, SNS topics, SQS queues, SWF workflows, and Storage Gateways are among the AWS services and products for which metrics are automatically provided. You can also view custom metrics generated by your own applications and services.


Ques: 18). How do I send Grafana from CloudWatch metrics?


1. Install Grafana : Follow the steps to Install Grafana.

2. Go to AWS -> IAM -> Policies.

3. Add below JSON in policy -> Create Policy:


   "Version": "2021-10-23", -- current Date

   "Statement": [


           "Sid": "AllowReadingMetricsFromCloudWatch",

           "Effect": "Allow",

           "Action": [





           "Resource": "*"



           "Sid": "AllowReadingTagsInstancesRegionsFromEC2",

           "Effect": "Allow",

           "Action": [





           "Resource": "*"




4. IAM -> Roles -> Create Role -> Select AWS Service / EC2

5. Attach Permission policies

6. IAM -> Users and click Add User ->Attach existing policies -> copy Access Key ID, your Secret Key

7. EC2 -> Instances-> Select Grafana Server and click on Actions -> Instance Settings -> Attach/Replace IAM Role -> Attach your Grafana IAM Role to the instance.

8. Log in to your Grafana Server using Terminal as root user and provide Access Key ID, your Secret Key:

# vim /usr/share/grafana/.credentials

aws_access_key_id = 000000000000

aws_secret_access_key = 0000000000

region = us-west-2

# chmod 0644 .credentials

9. Grafana -> Navigate to Data Sources -> Select CloudWatch Type

10. Create Dashboard -> Select Graph -> Select Panel Title -> edit and provide namespace.

Ques: 19). Is it possible to use IAM roles with the CloudWatch logs agent?


Yes, the CloudWatch logs agent has access to both keys and IAM roles and is capable of supporting and working with IAM.

Amazon Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is a managed service that integrates with a number of other AWS services. You can use it to create, store, and control encryption keys in your applications to encrypt your data. AWS KMS Key Management Service is a service that allows you to manage your keys on Amazon Web Services.


Ques: 20). How does AWS CloudWatch handle authentication and access control?


Use IAM users or roles to control who has access.

To manage access control, use Dashboard Permissions, IAM identity-based policies, and service-linked roles.

Permissions policies define who gets access to what and when.

Policies based on an individual's identity

Policies based on resources

You can't utilise CloudWatch Amazon Resource Names (ARNs) in an IAM policy because there aren't any. When designing a policy to control access to CloudWatch actions, replace the resource with a * (asterisk).