April 17, 2022

Top AWS Cloud Interview Questions and Answers Part - 1

Ques. 1): What do you mean by AWS Cloud?


AWS provides cloud computing and APIs to businesses and consumers all around the world. AWS provides enterprises and individuals with a variety of services, including processing power, database services, content distribution, and more. On a metered basis, organizations must pay for the AWS services they consume.

With the help of AWS tools and services, a company can create a distributed computing environment. Many organizations, corporations, and people in India use Amazon Web Services (AWS), which was founded in 2002 for web services and 2006 for cloud computing. It is also used by some Indian government agencies.

There are numerous cloud computing platforms available. However, AWS stands out from the competition due to its versatility and cost-effective cloud computing options. AWS currently offers over 200 services and solutions in domains such as IoT (Internet of Things), mobile development, data analytics, networking, and more.

Because AWS provides developer APIs for many of its services, they are not directly available to end consumers. The AWS web services are also commonly utilized for business purposes over HTTP.

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Ques. 2): What are the different pricing models for Amazon EC2 instances?


This is a crucial AWS interview question for experienced candidates. Continue reading to learn about additional AWS interview questions and answers for experienced/senior positions.

The following are the four different pricing models for Amazon EC2 instances:

On-demand pricing, also known as pay-as-you-go, allows you to pay just for the resources you've utilised thus far. Depending on the instances, you will have to pay for the resources utilised by the second/hour. If the work hours are short and unpredictable, the on-demand pricing model is ideal because it does not involve any upfront payment.

Reserved instance — If you have a requirement for your upcoming requirements, this is the best approach to use. Firms calculate their future EC2 needs and pay in advance to receive a discount of up to 75%. Reserved instances will save you computational resources and can be used anywhere you need it.

Spot Instance - If more computing capacity is required immediately, spot instances can be purchased at a discount of up to 90%. The spot instance pricing approach is used to sell underutilized computing resources at a substantially discounted rate.

Dedicated hosts - Customers who choose the dedicated hosts price model can reserve an actual EC2 server.

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Ques. 3): Your company has made the decision to move its business processes to the cloud. They do, however, want some of their data and information to be accessible solely by the management team. The remaining resources will be split among the firm's personnel. You must recommend an appropriate cloud architecture for your company, as well as the explanation for your selection.


This is one of the most important AWS interview questions. AWS interview questions focused on scenarios emphasize the candidate's experimental expertise and industrial attitude.

For my company, I will recommend a hybrid cloud design. The ideal blend of private and public clouds is found in hybrid cloud architecture. In my firm, the public cloud can be used in a hybrid design for shared resources. Only a private cloud can be used to exchange confidential resources with the management team.

By using a hybrid cloud architecture in our company, we may benefit from both private and public cloud services. A hybrid cloud allows data to be accessed at different levels within an organization/firm, depending on the data security requirements. It will help our company save money in the long term.

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Ques. 4): Explain RTO and RPO in terms of AWS.


The maximum waiting time for resuming of AWS services/operations during an outage/disaster is referred to as RTO (Recovery Time Objective). Firms must wait for the recovery process due to unanticipated failure, and the RTO is the maximum waiting time for an organization. When a company first starts utilizing AWS, they must define their RTO, which is also known as a metric. It specifies how long businesses can wait for apps and business processes to recover on AWS in the event of a disaster. As part of their BIA, businesses compute their RTO (Business Impact Analysis).

RPO (Recovery Point Objective) is a business statistic that is calculated as part of a business's BIA, just like RTO. RPO is the maximum quantity of data a company can afford to lose in the event of a disaster. Within the recuperation period, it is measured in a certain time range. The frequency of data backup in a firm/organization is also defined as RPO. If a company uses AWS services and its RPO is three hours, all of its data and disc volumes will be backed up every three hours.

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Ques. 5): What are S3 storage classes, and how can you differentiate between the many sorts of S3 storage classes?


For data integrity and to help with concurrent data loss, Simple Storage Service (S3) storage classes are used. Any item you store in S3 will be assigned to a specific storage class. It also assists in the maintenance of the object lifecycle, which aids in automatic migration and so saves money. The following are the four types of S3 storage classes:

S3 Standard — The S3 standard storage class duplicates and stores data across several devices in diverse facilities. The S3 standard can cope with the loss of up to two facilities at the same time. It delivers greater endurance and availability due to its low latency and high throughput.

S3 Standard IA – 'S3 Standard Infrequently Accessed' is utilized in situations where data is not accessible often but must be accessed quickly when needed. It, like S3 Standard, can withstand data loss at a maximum of two sites at the same time.

S3 One Zone Infrequent Access - Many of the features are comparable to those of S3 Standard IA. The main distinction between S3 one zone infrequent access and the rest of the storage classes is that S3 one zone infrequent access has a low availability of 99.5 percent. S3 standard and standard IA are both 99.99 percent available.

S3 Glacier - When compared to other storage classes, S3 Glacier is the least expensive. The data in the S3 glacier can only be used for archiving purposes.

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Ques. 6): In AWS, what is a policy? Briefly describe the many sorts of AWS policies.


A policy is an AWS object that is connected with a resource and determines whether or not a user request should be granted. The following are the six main types of policies available in AWS:

Identity-based policies are those that deal with a single identity user, several users, or a certain job. Permissions are stored in JSON format in identity-based policies. They're also separated into two categories: managed and inline policies.

Resource-based policies — In AWS, resource-based policies refer to policies that deal with resources. The S3 bucket is an example of an AWS resource.

Rights boundaries – Permissions boundaries determine the maximum number of permissions that identity-based policies can grant to an object/entity.

SCP (Service Control Policies) - SCP (Service Control Policies) are likewise recorded in JSON format and establish the maximum amount of permissions that a firm/organization can have.

ACL (Access Control Lists) - The principles in another AWS account that can access the resources are defined by ACL (Access Control Lists). It's also the only AWS policy that doesn't use the JSON format.

Session policies — Session policies provide a restriction on how many rights a user's identity-based policies can grant.

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Ques. 7): You've recently assigned numerous EC2 instances across different availability zones for your business website. You've also used a Multi-AZ RDS DB instance because your website does a lot of read/write operations per minute (extra-large). Everything was going according to plan until you noticed RDS MySQL read congestion. How are you going to address this problem in order to improve your website's performance?


One of the most common technical AWS interview questions is this one. Candidates should not only be familiar with AWS' cloud deployment capabilities, but also with Amazon's database services.

ElastiCache will be installed and deployed in the various availability zones of EC2 instances. By deploying ElastiCache in the memory caches of various availability zones, a cached version of my website will be created in each zone. For better website performance, an RDS MySQL read replica will be added to each availability zone. Since the 'RDS MySQL read replica' has been added to each availability zone, the RDS MySQL instance will not be overloaded, thus resolving the read contention issue. Users can also view my website rapidly in different availability zones because each zone has a cached version.

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Ques. 8): In AWS, describe the various types of elastic load balancers.


Three different types of load balancers are supported by AWS elastic load balancing. Load balancers are used in AWS to route incoming traffic. In AWS, there are three types of load balancers:

Application load balancer - The application load balancer is in charge of the application layer routing decisions. At the HTTP/HTTPS level, it performs path-based routing (layer 7). It also aids in the distribution of requests to different container instances. Using the application load balancer, you can send a request to many ports in the container instances.

Network load balancer - The network load balancer is concerned with transport layer (SSL/TCP) routing decisions. It determines the target on the port from a group of targets using a flow hash routing method. Once the target has been chosen, a TCP connection is created with the target using the known listener setup.

Classic load balancer - A traditional load balancer can choose between the application and transport layers. The basic load balancer allows you to bind a load balancer port to only one container instance (fixed mapping).

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Ques. 9): Briefly describe the various AWS RDS database types.


The following are the different types of AWS RDS databases:

Amazon Aurora - The Aurora database was built entirely in AWS RDS, which means it can't run on any local device connected to the AWS cloud. Because of its increased availability and speed, this relational database is chosen.

PostgreSQL — PostgreSQL is a relational database designed specifically for AWS developers and start-ups. This open-source database is simple to use and aids users in growing cloud deployments. PostgreSQL deployments are not only quick, but also cost-effective (economical).

MySQL is another open-source database that is popular in cloud installations because of its excellent scalability.

MariaDB — MariaDB is an open-source database that is used in the cloud to deploy scalable servers. Its  servers can be set up in the cloud in a matter of minutes. The cost of deploying a scalable MariaDB server is similarly low. MariaDB is also preferred for its administration features, including as scaling, replication, and software patching.

Oracle - Oracle is an AWS RDS relational database that can scale with its respective cloud installations. It manages numerous administrative chores in the same way that MariaDB does.

SQL server — This relational database can also handle administrative responsibilities such as scalability, backup, and replication. Multiple versions of SQL servers can be deployed in the cloud in minutes. In AWS, deploying SQL servers is also cost-effective.

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Ques. 10): What are your thoughts about AMI?


Within the EC2 environment, an AMI (Amazon Computer Image) is utilized to create a virtual machine. The services that are supplied via EC2 are only deployed via AMI. The read-only filesystem image that also includes an operating system is the most important aspect of AMI. AMI also has a launch permission that determines which AWS accounts are allowed to use AMI to deploy instances. Block device mapping in AMI determines which volumes are attached to an instance during the launching process. There are three main sorts of images in the AMI.

A public image is an AMI that may be used by any user/client, although users can also choose to utilize a 'Paid' image. You can also use a ‘Shared’ AMI that provides more flexibility to the developer. Users can access A shared AMI who are allowed as per the developer’s orders.

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Ques. 11): What are the primary distinctions between Amazon Web Services and OpenStack?


AWS and OpenStack are both in the business of offering cloud computing services to their customers. AWS is a proprietary cloud computing platform owned and distributed by Amazon, whereas OpenStack is a free and open-source cloud computing platform. AWS provides a variety of cloud computing services such as IaaS, PaaS, and others, whereas OpenStack is an IaaS cloud computing platform. Because OpenStack is open source, you can use it for free, but you must pay for AWS services as you use it.

Another key distinction between AWS and OpenStack is the ability to repeat activities. While AWS uses templates to conduct recurring tasks, OpenStack uses text files. OpenStack is useful for studying and comprehending cloud computing, while AWS is more capable and well-equipped for enterprises. AWS also offers business development tools that OpenStack does not offer.

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Ques. 12): What do you know about Amazon Web Services Lambda?


AWS Lambda is a computing platform given as part of the AWS services that performs tasks without the use of servers. Any code compiled on AWS Lambda will run in response to events, and it will automatically identify the resources needed to compile the code. AWS Lambda supports a variety of programming languages, including Node.js, Python, Java, Ruby, and others. You only pay for the time your code is performed when using AWS Lambda. When you are not using the computer, you will not be charged anything.

You may use AWS Lambda to run your code in response to HTTP requests in addition to running it in response to events. AWS Lambda will automatically manage various resources like memory, network, CPU, etc., while you run a code on it.

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Ques. 13): You must upload a file to Amazon S3 that is around 120 megabytes in size. What strategy will you use to upload this file?


A file larger than 100 megabytes can be uploaded to Amazon S3 utilizing the multipart upload feature provided by AWS. I'll be able to post the 120 megabyte file in numerous parts using the multipart upload programme. Using the multipart upload application, each part of the huge file will be uploaded separately. Once all of the original files have been submitted, they can be combined to create a 120 megabyte original file.

Using the multipart upload utility will drastically reduce the upload time. Multipart uploading and downloading can be done with AWS S3 commands. AWS S3 commands are also capable of automatically performing multipart uploading/downloading after evaluating the file size.

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Ques. 14): Describe an Amazon Web Services (AWS) service that can be used to protect AWS infrastructure against DDoS attacks.


We can use AWS Shield to protect apps running on AWS from DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks of any form. AWS Shield can detect a DDoS attack automatically and reduce application downtime and latency. All of the defensive procedures can be automated by AWS Shield, so a company does not need to contact Amazon tech support. AWS Shield Standard provides automated protection against DDoS attacks to all AWS users. The AWS Shield Advanced services, on the other hand, can be used to protect against large/organized DDoS attacks.

AWS Shield Advanced defends AWS-based applications against advanced DDoS attacks at the network and transport layers. It also provides real-time visibility and monitoring at the time of any DDoS attack on the AWS applications.

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Ques. 15): Briefly describe the various types of virtualization available in AWS.


In AWS, there are three different types of virtualization:

HVM (Hardware Virtual Machine) - HVM (Hardware Virtual Machine) aids in full virtualization of hardware, allowing all virtual hardware machines to function independently. The virtual machines run the master boot record to boot themselves after AWS AMI virtualization is completed. The master boot record is run by virtual machines on the root block device of the produced AWS machine image.

PV (Paravirtualization) is a type of virtualization that is less intensive than HVM. Before you can do anything in PV, you'll need to make some changes to the guest OS. Users can export a scalable and modified version of hardware to virtual machines with these changes.

PV on HVM – Paravirtualization on HVM can also be done for increased functionality. Operating systems can get access to storage and network I/O through the host via PV on HVM.

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Ques. 16): What are your thoughts on AWS's cross-region replication service?


Cross-region replication is utilized when data needs to be copied from one bucket to another. Cross-region replication's key advantage is that it allows you to duplicate data from one bucket to another even if the buckets are in separate areas. Cross-region replication allows for asynchronous data copying between buckets in the same AWS management panel.

The Source Bucket is the one from which the data/object is being copied, whereas the Destination Bucket is the one from which the data/object is being copied. To take use of cross-region replication, versioning should be enabled in both the source and destination buckets. Once you've uploaded a collection of data to the destination bucket, you can move on to the next step, but you cannot upload/replicate the same data from the source bucket.

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Ques. 17): What are your thoughts on Amazon's Web Application Firewall (WSF)?


AWS WAF is a firewall service that guards against web application exploits. They defend online applications against bots that might degrade application performance or spend resources unnecessarily. With the help of AWS WAF, users can manage incoming traffic to their web applications. Apart from bot traffic, AWS WAF can also protect the web application from a variety of common assaults.

Users can use AWS WAF to build traffic rules that limit specific traffic patterns from affecting the performance of web applications. AWS WAF provides an API that may be used to build a set of rules for managing incoming traffic and automate the creation of web application security rules.

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Ques. 18): Your Company has offices all over the world and is using AWS for multi-regional deployments. Your company employs MYSQL 5.6 for data durability. Your company just announced that it will be collecting batch process data from each location on a regular basis and generating regional reports. After that, the reports would be sent to various branch offices. What strategy will you recommend for completing this assignment in the lowest amount of time?


Server deployment and database-related difficulties might potentially be the subject of AWS interview questions. This is an example of an AWS interview question for a senior position.

I recommend setting up a master RDS instance to manage the firm's database. For gathering/reading reports from a variety of sources, we can create a read replica of the RDS instance in various regional headquarters. Installing a read replica at multiple locations will help us in reading reports in less time.

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Ques. 19): What are your thoughts on Amazon EMR?


Amazon EMR (Elastic MapReduce) is a web service for data processing that is frequently utilized. Amazon EMR is made up of clusters, which are groups of EC2 instances. With a set of EC2 instances, Cluster is the primary component of Amazon EMR. A node is a single EC2 instance in a cluster, and each node has a specific duty assigned to it. The role associated with each node in a cluster is defined by the node type.

A master node is also included in Amazon EMR, which is responsible for determining the responsibilities of other nodes in a cluster. The master node is also in charge of monitoring the performance of other nodes as well as the system's general health.

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Ques. 20): Describe the core services of Amazon Kinesis in brief?


Kinesis is a data streaming platform offered by Amazon. There are three core services of Amazon kinesis that are as follows:

Kinesis Streams – While data streaming, the produced data is stored in shards containing the storage sections of Kinesis Streams. The consumers can then access the data stored in shards and can turn it into useful data. Once the customers/consumers are done with the data stored in shards, it is moved to other AWS storage like DynamoDB, S3, etc.

Kinesis Firehose – Kinesis Firehose is used to deliver the streaming data to various AWS destinations like S3, Redshift, Elasticsearch, etc.

Kinesis Analytics – One can analyze the streaming data, and rich insights can be collected using Kinesis Analytics. You can run SQL queries on the data stored within Kinesis Firehose via Kinesis Analytics.

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