April 20, 2022

Top 20 AWS Django Interview Questions and Answers

 

        Django is a high-level Python-based open-source web framework that promotes rapid development and clean, pragmatic design. Django uses the model-view-template architectural paradigm and was produced by a fast-moving online-new operation. Django is designed to resist the pressures of tight deadlines in a newsroom, as well as the high standards of the experienced web developers that created it. It makes it simple to build a high-performing web application.

A single person may develop advanced functionality such as authentication support, admin panel, administration panel, contact forms, comment boxes, file upload, and many others. You'd have to create these components from scratch if you wanted to develop a website from the ground up. These elements have already been built; all you have to do now is tweak them to fit your requirements. Django features a vast library of modules that can be quickly incorporated into projects and takes care of the majority of the headaches associated with web development, allowing you to concentrate on the design of your programme.

Django is named after Django Reinhardt, a gypsy jazz guitarist who was one of the best guitarists of all time and lived from the 1930s until the early 1950s.

2.2.1 is the most recent and stable version.

 

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Ques. 1): What exactly is Django?

Answer:

Django is a free and open-source web framework based on Python and follows the model-view-template (MVT) architectural paradigm. It is named after Django Reinhardt. The Django Software Foundation (DSF), an independent non-profit organisation based in the United States, maintains the framework.

It was built in the fall of 2003 by Adrian Holovaty and Simon Willson, internet programmers for the Lawrence Journal-World newspaper. I started learning Python as a programming language. Two years later, in July 2005, it was released to the public under a BSD licence. In June 2008, the young Django Software Foundation (DSF) took over Django.

 

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Ques. 2): What are some of the benefits of Django?

Answer:

Rich Ecosystem: It has a number of third-party apps that can be readily integrated to meet the project's needs.

Mature: Django is a mature framework that has been in use for over a decade. Many features have been added and enhanced over time to make it a robust framework. Aside from that, Django is used by a significant number of developers.

Dashboard: Django provides an admin dashboard through which we can do simple CRUD operations on the objects.

Plugins: It enables programmers to add a variety of features to apps while yet leaving room for customisation.

Libraries: Because of the big development community, there are plenty of libraries to choose from for each work.

ORM: It helps us with working with data in a more object-oriented way.

 

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Ques. 3): What are Django templates, or the Django template language?

Answer:

The Django MVT architecture relies heavily on templates. They usually consist of HTML, CSS, and js, with views embedded to embed dynamic variables and information. The template engine recognises and interprets some constructs. Variables and tags are the most important.

A context is used to render a template. Rendering simply replaces variables with their context-based values and processes tags. Everything else stays the same.

The syntax of the Django template language includes the following four constructs:

  • Variables
  • Tags
  • Filters
  • Comments

 

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Ques. 4):  What does Django architecture look like?

Answer:

Django architecture consists of:

  • Models: Describes the database schema and data structure
  • Views: Controls what a user sees. The view retrieves data from appropriate models, executes any calculations made, and passes it on to the template
  • Templates: Controls how the user sees the pages. It describes how the data received from the views need to be altered or formatted to display on the page
  • Controller: Made up of the Django framework and URL parsing

After going through some of the basic Django interview questions and answers, it is time we increase the difficulty level with the intermediate Django interview questions and answers.

 

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Ques. 5): What is the lifecycle of a Django response?

Answer:

Django creates a HttpRequest object whenever a request to a web page is made, which provides metadata about the request. After that, Django loads the specific view by giving the HttpRequest to the view method as the first argument. An HttpResponse object will be returned by each view.

On the big picture following steps occur when a request is received by Django:

  • The Django settings.py file, which also contains numerous middleware classes, is loaded first (MIDDLEWARES).
  • The middlewares are also performed in the order that they are listed in the MIDDLEWAREST command.
  • The request is now passed to the URL Router, which simply extracts the URL path from the request and tries to match it with the urls.py paths.
  • Once it has mapped, it will call the equivalent view function, which will generate an equivalent answer.
  • The response is sent back to the client/browser after passing through the response middlewares.

 

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Ques. 6): What is Jinja templating?

Answer:

Jinja Templating is a very popular templating engine for Python, the latest version is Jinja2.

Some of its features are:

  • Sandbox Execution - This is a sandbox (or a protected) framework for automating the testing process.
  • HTML Escaping - It provides automatic HTML Escaping as <, >, & characters have special values in templates and if using a regular text, these symbols can lead to XSS Attacks which Jinja deals with automatically.
  • Template Inheritance
  • Generates HTML templates much faster than default engine
  • Easier to debug as compared to the default engine.

 

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Ques. 7): What is the purpose of the django.shortcuts.render function?

Answer:

We use render when a view function provides a webpage as a HttpResponse rather than a plain string (). The render function is a shortcut that allows the developer to pass the data dictionary together with the template. This function then uses a templating engine to mix the template with a data dictionary. Finally, the rendered text, which is the data returned by models, is returned by render() as a HttpResponse. As a result, Django render() eliminates the majority of the developer's labour and allows him to employ a variety of template engines.

The basic syntax:

render(request, template_name, context=None, content_type=None, status=None, using=None)

The parameter that generates the answer is the request. The context is a dict containing the data passed on the page from the python, while the template name is the HTML template utilised. You can also define the content type, data status, and the render you want to return.

 

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Ques. 8): What are the backends that Django supports?

Answer:

Django attempted to support as many features as possible on all database backends; however, not all database backends are created equal, and we must evaluate which features to offer and which assumptions we can safely make.

Three more major relational databases are officially supported by Django.

Below is the list of relational databases supported by Django -

1. PostgreSQL

2. MySQL and

3. Oracle

Below is the list of databases to which Django supports connectivity -

4. SQLite - Django automatically creates an SQLite database for your project.

5. SAP (Sybase) SQL Anywhere

6. IBM DB2

7. Firebird

8. ADO- Microsoft SQL Server

9. ODBC - Microsoft SQL Server

10. Azure SQL database or other ODBC compatible database

Configuration to connect to the database is done in the settings.py file of the Django project.

ADO (ActiveX Data Objects) and ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) interfaces are standard for connecting to Microsoft SQL Server and is supported by most relational database brands.

 

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Ques. 9): What is Django Field Class, and how does it work?

Answer:

The term 'field' refers to an abstract class that represents a database table column.

RegisterLookupMixin is a subclass of Field, while Field is a subclass of RegisterLookupMixin. These attributes are utilised in Django to construct database tables (db types()) that are used to map Python types to the database using get prep value() and vice versa using the from db value() function. As a result, fields are essential components of Django APIs like models and querysets.

 

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Ques. 10): What are the options for customising the Django admin interface's functionality?

Answer:

The functionality of the Django admin interface can be customised in a variety of ways. You can piggyback on top of a Django-generated add/change form and use the js option to add JavaScript modules. This option is essentially a list of URLs pointing to the JavaScript modules that will be included in your project using the script> tag. If you like, you may also write views for the admin.

 

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Ques. 11): What exactly is mixin?

Answer:

Mixin is a sort of multiple inheritance in which behaviours and characteristics from multiple parent classes are combined. Mixins are a great method to reuse code from different classes. Generic class-based views, for example, have a mixin named TemplateResponseMixin that defines the render to response() method. When this is paired with a class from the View, a TemplateView class is created.

One disadvantage of using these mixins is that it becomes more difficult to understand what a child class is doing and which methods to override if its code is dispersed across numerous classes.

 

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Ques. 12): When is it OK to utilise iterators in Django ORM?

Answer:

Iterators are containers in Python that contain a countable number of elements. The __init__() and the __next__() methods are implemented by any object that is an iterator. When using iterators in Django, the optimal case is when you need to process results that will take up a lot of memory. You can accomplish this by calling the iterator() method, which evaluates a QuerySet and returns an iterator over the results.

 

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Ques. 13): Explain how Middlewares are used in Django.

Answer:

You might come across this question in a number of Django Interview Questions. Middleware is a lightweight, low-level plugin architecture for changing Django's input and output on a global scale. It's essentially a set of hooks into Django's request/response processing. Each component of middleware serves a specific purpose. The AuthenticationMiddleware, for example, is used to associate users with requests via sessions. Other middlewares provided by Django include cache middleware, which enables site-wide caching, common middleware, which performs a variety of functions such as restricting access to user agents, URL rewriting, and so on, and GZip middleware, which compresses material for browsers, among others.

 

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Ques. 14): What is the purpose of the Django command'migrate'?

Answer:

Migrations are used in Django to propagate changes to models. The migrate command is mostly used to apply or unapply model migration modifications. This command essentially synchronises the database state with the current set of models and migrations. This command can be used with or without parameters. If no option is specified, all apps will have all of their migrations running.

 

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Ques. 15): In a few words, what are Django URLs?

Answer:

Django lets you create your own URLs in whatever way you choose. The goal is to keep a clean URL scheme free of framework constraints. To construct URLs for your app, you'll need to write a Python module called URLconf or URL configuration, which is made up entirely of Python code and serves as a mapping between URL path expressions and Python functions. This mapping can be as lengthy or as short as needed, and it can also include references to other mappings. When a request is processed, the requested URL is compared to the URLs in the urls.py file, and the appropriate view is obtained.

 

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Ques. 16):  Is Django superior to Flask?

Answer:

Django is a Python framework for creating huge projects. Flask, on the other hand, is used to create smaller websites, and it is much easier to understand and use than Django. Django is a full-featured framework that does not require any third-party libraries. Flask is a lightweight framework that lets you install third-party utilities whenever and anywhere you choose. So, the answer to this question is mostly dependent on the user's requirements, and if the requirements are really stringent, the answer is unmistakably Django.

 

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Ques. 17): Why is Django so popular among web developers?

Answer:

Django is popular among web developers because it:

  • Allows for the division of code modules into logical groups, making them more changeable.
  • To make website maintenance easier, it includes an auto-generated web admin module.
  • For common user tasks, it provides a pre-packaged API.
  • Allows developers to provide the URL for a certain function.
  • Allows users to keep business logic separate from HTML.
  • Is written in Python, which is one of the most widely used computer languages today.
  • Provides a framework for defining the HTML template for your web page, allowing you to avoid duplicating code.

 

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Ques. 18): What are the distinguishing characteristics of Django that make it a superior framework?

Answer:

The following are the best characteristics of Django that set it apart from the competition:

  • Django has great documentation in comparison to other open-source technologies.
  • It's a web framework, and it's one of the reasons why people began to use it. It's the only one capable of handling any type of operation.
  • Django is search engine friendly.
  • Django is scalable and can switch between small and large-scale projects with ease.
  • Nature is versatile. Django enables you to create apps for a wide range of domains.
  • It has a large community with which to connect and share.
  • Allows for quick development.

 

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Ques. 19): Could you give an example of Django ORM?

Answer:

The Object-Relational Mapper (ORM) in Django is the most significant feature, since it allows you to interface with app data from relational databases like SQLite, MySQL, and PostgreSQL.

The Django ORM is a layer of abstraction between the data structure (models) of a web application and the database where the data is kept. You can retrieve, remove, save, and do other database actions without writing any code.

The key benefit of ORMs is their ability to develop quickly. ORMs improve the portability of projects. With Django ORM, changing the database is a lot easier.

 

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Ques. 20): In Django, what is the difference between a CharField and a TextField?

Answer:

TextField is a huge text field that can hold a lot of text. TextField is a Django field that stores paragraphs and other text data. TextArea is the default form widget for this field.

CharField is a string field that can be used to store small to large strings. In C/C++, it's similar to a string field. CharField is a Django field that stores short strings like first name, last name, and so on.

 

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