Showing posts with label application. Show all posts
Showing posts with label application. Show all posts

Wednesday, 5 January 2022

Top 20 Apache Struts 2 Interview Questions and Answers


Struts 2 is a Java enterprise application framework for constructing web applications. It was created by the Apache Software Foundation. In the year 2006, it was first released. It's written in the Java programming language. It is cross-platform compatible. It is built on the MVC architecture, which is a software design paradigm for creating applications. Struts 2 includes features such as simplified testability, Ajax support, Thread-safety, and Template support, among others.

Apache Cassandra Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 1): What exactly is Struts2?


Apache Struts2 is a Java web application framework that is free source. The OpenSymphony WebWork framework is the foundation for Struts2. It's a significant improvement over Struts1, making it more adaptable, simple to use, and extendable. Action, Interceptors, and Result pages are the three main components of Struts2.

Struts2 offers a variety of options for creating Action classes and configuring them using struts.xml or annotations. For common jobs, we can make our own interceptors. Struts2 includes a large number of tags and makes use of the OGNL expression language. To render result pages, we can design our own type converters. JSPs and FreeMarker templates can be used as result pages.

 Apache Camel Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 2): What are some of Struts2's features?


Here are some of the fantastic features that can persuade you to use Struts2.

POJO forms and POJO actions − Struts2 has done away with the Action Forms that were an integral part of the Struts framework. With Struts2, you can use any POJO to receive the form input. Similarly, you can now see any POJO as an Action class.

Tag support − Struts2 has improved the form tags and the new tags allow the developers to write less code.

AJAX support − Struts2 has recognised the take over by Web2.0 technologies, and has integrated AJAX support into the product by creating AJAX tags, that function very similar to the standard Struts2 tags.

Easy Integration − Integration with other frameworks like Spring, Tiles and SiteMesh is now easier with a variety of integration available with Struts2.

Template Support − Support for generating views using templates.

Plugin Support − The core Struts2 behaviour can be enhanced and augmented by the use of plugins. A number of plugins are available for Struts2.

Apache Ant Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 3): What's the difference between Struts 1 and Struts 2?


This is a list of the most common Strut 2 interview questions. The action class in Strut 1 is not a POJO, hence it must inherit the abstract class. An action servlet is used as the front controller. Only JSP is used for the component view. A configuration file can be inserted in the WEB-INF directory in section 1. When processing requests, it makes use of the Request Processor class. Actions and models are separated in Strut 1.

The action class in Strut 2 is a POJO, therefore there's no need to inherit any classes or implement any interfaces. For the view component, it has JSP, free-market, and so on. The function controller in strut 2 is the Struts Prepare and Execute filter. In this, a configuration file must be named as struts.xml and placed inside the classes directory. It uses the concept of Interceptors while processing the request. In strut 2, action and models are combined within the action class.

Apache Tomcat Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 4): In Struct2, What Is The Use Of


This configuration file allows you to override the framework's default behaviour. In fact, all of the properties in the configuration file can be defined in the web.xml using the init-param, as well as in the struts.xml configuration file using the constant tag. However, if you prefer to keep things separate and more struts specific, you can create this file in the WEB-INF/classes folder. The default values configured in, which is included in the struts2-core-x.y.z.jar distribution, will be overridden by the values configured in this file.

Apache Kafka Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 5): Explain The Life Cycle Of A Request In Struct2 Application?

Answer :

Following is the life cycle of a request in Struct2 application −

  • User sends a request to the server for requesting for some resource (i.e pages).
  • The FilterDispatcher looks at the request and then determines the appropriate Action.
  • Configured interceptors functionalities applies such as validation, file upload etc.
  • Selected action is executed to perform the requested operation.
  • Again, configured interceptors are applied to do any post-processing if required.
  • Finally the result is prepared by the view and returns the result to the user.

Apache Tapestry Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 6): What are the inbuilt themes that are provided by strut 2?


There are 3 different inbuilt themes:

Simple theme: It is a minimal theme which is having very little content. It means that the text field tag renders the HTML tag without label, validation, error reporting or any other formatting or functionality.

XHTML theme: It is referred to as the default theme used by struts 2 and provides all the basics that a simple theme provides. It adds the other several features like standard two-column table layout for the HTML labels for each of the HTML, validation and error reporting etc.

Css_xhtml theme: This is the theme that provides all the basics that the simple theme provides, and it adds other several features like the standard two-column CSS-based layout and using div tag for HTML struts tags, labels for each of the HTML struts tags and placed according to the CSS style sheet.

Apache Ambari interview Questions & Answers

 Ques. 7): What is internationalization and how does it work?


This is one of the most common Struts 2 Interview Questions that is asked during an interview. Localization refers to the process of planning and implementing products and services so that they may be easily modified to specific local languages and cultures, whereas internationalization refers to the act of enabling localization.

Apache Hive Interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 8): What is the difference between an interceptor and a filter?


The interceptors are built around struts 2. It runs for all requests that qualify for a servlet filter front controller and can be customised to run extra interceptors for specific action execution. Interceptor methods can be configured to execute or not to execute using exclude and include methods.

Servlet specifications are used to create the filters. Executes on request and non-configurable method calls if the pattern matches.

Apache Spark Interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 9): Explain struts 2's XML-based validation.


XML-based validation in Struts 2 adds more validation options, such as email validation, integer range validation, form validation field, expression validation, regex validation, needed validation, string length validation, and necessary string validation, among others. The XML file must be titled 'actionclass'-validation.xml in Struts 2.

Apache NiFi Interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 10): How Does Validation in Struts 2 Work?


When the user clicks the submit button, Struts 2 will run the validate method, and if any of the if statements inside the method are true, Struts 2 will call the addFieldError method. Struts 2 will not proceed to invoke the execute method if any errors have been introduced. The Struts 2 framework, on the other hand, will return input as a result of calling the action.

When validation fails and Struts 2 returns input, the view file is redisplayed by the Struts 2 framework. Because we utilised Struts 2 form tags, the error messages will appear directly above the completed form.

These are the error messages we specified in the call to the addFieldError function. The addFieldError method takes two arguments. The first is the form field name to which the error applies and the second is the error message to display above that form field.


Ques. 11): What Types Of Validations Are Available In Xml Based Validation In Struts2?

Answer :

Following is the list of various types of field level and non-field level validation available in Struts2 −

  • date validator
  • double validator
  • email validator
  • expression validator
  • int validator
  • regex validator
  • required validator
  • requiredstring validator
  • stringlength validator
  • url validator


Ques. 12):  How Does Struts 2's Interceptor Work?


The actual action will be performed by calling invocation.invoke() from the interceptor. So, depending on your needs, you can conduct some pre-processing and some post-processing.

The framework initiates the process by using the invoke method on the ActionInvocation object (). When invoke() is called, ActionInvocation consults its state and performs the next available interceptor. The invoke() method will cause the action to be executed once all of the configured interceptors have been invoked.


Ques. 13): What Is Value Stack?

Answer :

The value stack is a set of several objects which keeps the following objects in the provided order −

Temporary Objects − There are various temporary objects which are created during execution of a page. For example the current iteration value for a collection being looped over in a JSP tag.

The Model Object − If you are using model objects in your struts application, the current model object is placed before the action on the value stack.

The Action Object − This will be the current action object which is being executed.

Named Objects − These objects include #application, #session, #request, #attr and #parameters and refer to the corresponding servlet scopes.


Ques. 14): What Is The Difference Between Valuestack And OGNL?


ValueStack is the storage space where Struts2 stores application data for processing client requests. The information is saved in ActionContext objects that use ThreadLocal to store values that are unique to each request thread.

OGNL (Object-Graph Navigation Language) is a sophisticated Expression Language for manipulating data on the ValueStack. Both interceptors and result pages can use OGNL to access data stored on ValueStack, as shown in the architectural diagram.


Ques. 15): What Is The Struts-default Package And How Does It Help?


Struts-default is an abstract package that specifies all of the Struts2 interceptors as well as the most widely used interceptor stack. To prevent having to configure interceptors twice, it's best to extend this package while configuring our application package. This is provided to assist developers by making the work of configuring interceptor and result pages in our application a lot easier.


Ques. 16): What Is The Purpose Of @after Annotation?

Answer :

The @After annotation marks a action method that needs to be called after the main action method and the result was executed. Return value is ignored.

public class Employee extends ActionSupport{


   public void isValid() throws ValidationException {

      // validate model object, throw exception if failed


   public String execute() {

      // perform secure action

      return SUCCESS;




Ques. 17): What Is The Purpose Of @before Annotation?

Answer :

The @Before annotation marks a action method that needs to be called before the main action method and the result was executed. Return value is ignored.

public class Employee extends ActionSupport{


   public void isAuthorized() throws AuthenticationException {

      // authorize request, throw exception if failed


   public String execute() {

      // perform secure action

      return SUCCESS;




Ques. 18): What Is The Difference Between Using An Action Interface And Using An Actionsupport Class For Our Action Classes, And Which Would You Prefer?


To develop our action classes, we can use the Action interface. This interface only has one function, execute(), which we must implement. The main advantage of utilising this interface is that it includes some constants that can be used on result pages, such as SUCCESS, ERROR, NONE, INPUT, and LOGIN.

The ActionSupport class implements the Action interface by default, as well as interfaces for Validation and i18n support. Action, Validateable, ValidationAware, TextProvider, and LocaleProvider are all implemented by the ActionSupport class. To implement field level validation login in our action classes, we can override the validate() method of the ActionSupport class.

Depending on the requirements, we can use any of the approaches to create struts 2 action classes, my favorite is ActionSupport class because it helps in writing validation and i18n logic easily in action classes.


Ques. 19): How Do We Get Servlet Api Requests, Responses, Httpsessions, and Other Objects Into Action Classes?


Servlet API components such as Request, Response, and Session are not directly accessible through Struts2 action classes. However, in some action classes, such as checking the HTTP method or adding cookies in the response, these accesses are required.

As a result, the Struts2 API exposes a number of *Aware interfaces through which we can access these objects. Struts2 API injects Servlet API components into action classes using dependency injection. SessionAware, ApplicationAware, ServletRequestAware, and ServletResponseAware are some of the most essential Aware interfaces.


Ques. 20): Is Struts2 Interceptors And Action Thread Safe?


Because an object is instantiated for each request to process, Struts2 Action classes are thread safe.

Because Struts2 interceptors are singleton classes that launch a new thread to handle the request, they are not thread safe, and we must construct them carefully to avoid any shared data concerns.




Monday, 3 January 2022

Top 20 Apache Tomcat Interview Questions and Answers


       Tomcat is a Java Servlet container and web server developed by the Apache Software Foundation's Jakarta project. Client browsers send queries to a web server, which the server answers to with web pages. Web servers can generate dynamic content based on the user's requests. Because it supports both Java servlet and JavaServerPages (JSP) technologies, Tomcat excels at this. Even if a free servlet and JSP engine is required, Tomcat can be utilised as a web server for a variety of applications. It can run on its own or alongside standard web servers like Apache httpd, delivering static pages while Tomcat handles dynamic servlet and JSP queries.

    Apache Tomcat is an open source Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages, Java Expression Language, and Java WebSocket implementation platform. Many firms are hiring Devops engineers, Apache Tomcat administrators, Linux Apache Tomcat jobs, and Hadoop developers at varying levels of experience. The most popular Web server is Apache, and you must be familiar with it if you plan to work as a Middleware/System/Web administrator. Apache HTTP is a free and open-source web server that runs on Windows and Linux.

 Apache Kafka Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 1): Who is in charge of Tomcat?


The Apache Software Foundation is the correct answer. The Apache Software Foundation is a non-profit organisation that oversees several Open Source projects.

The Apache Software Foundation's Java-based projects are referred to as Jakarta.

Tomcat is an Apache Jakarta project that manages server-side Java (in the form of Servlets and JSPs). Tomcat is the "reference" implementation of the Servlet and JSP specifications, which means that anything that runs in Tomcat should run in any compliant Servlet / JSP container.

 Apache Tapestry Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 2): Difference between apache and apache-tomcat server?


Apache: Apache is mostly used to serve static content, but there are numerous add-on modules (some of which are included with Apache) that allow it to modify the content and serve dynamic content written in Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and other languages.

Apache is an HTTP server that serves HTTP requests.

Tomcat is a servlet/JSP container developed by Apache. It's written in the Java programming language. Although it can provide static information, its primary function is to host servlets and JSPs.

JSP files (which are comparable to PHP and older ASP files) are converted into Java code (HttpServlet), which is then compiled into.class files and run by the Java virtual machine by the server.

Apache Tomcat is used to deploy your Java Servlets and JSPs. So in your Java project, you can build your WAR (short for Web ARchive) file, and just drop it in the deploy directory in Tomcat.

Although it is possible to get Tomcat to run Perl scripts and the like, you wouldn’t use Tomcat unless most of your content was Java.

Tomcat is a Servlet and JSP Server serving Java technologies

 Apache Ambari interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 3):  What exactly is Coyote?


Coyote is a Tomcat Connector component that acts as a web server and supports the HTTP 1.1 protocol. This enables Catalina, which is ostensibly a Java Servlet or JSP container, to additionally serve local files as HTTP documents.

Coyote monitors a specific TCP port for incoming connections to the server and transmits the request to the Tomcat Engine, which processes the request and returns a response to the requesting client.

Coyote is Tomcat's HTTP connector, which offers an interface for browsers to connect to.

 Apache Hive Interview Questions & Answers

Ques. 4): What is a servlet container?


A servlet container is a web server component that communicates with Java servlets. The servlet container is in charge of managing servlet lifecycles, mapping URLs to specific servlets, and ensuring that the URL requester has the appropriate access privileges.

Requests to servlets, JavaServer Pages (JSP) files, and other types of files containing server-side code are handled by the servlet container. The Web container generates servlet instances, loads and unloads servlets, creates and manages request and response objects, and handles other servlet-related operations.

The web component contract of the Java EE architecture is implemented by the servlet container, which defines a runtime environment for web components that includes security, concurrency, lifecycle management, transaction, deployment, and other services.

Apache Spark Interview Questions & Answers 

Ques. 5): How Do I Can Change The Default Home Page Loaded By Tomcat?

Answer :

We can easily override home page via adding welcome-file-list in application $TOMCAT_HOME/webapps//WEB-INF /web.xml file or by editing in container $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/web.xml

In $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/web.xml, it may look like this:




Request URI refers to a directory, the default servlet looks for a "welcome file" within that directory in following order: index.html, index.htm and index.jsp

Apache NiFi Interview Questions & Answers 

Ques. 6): what is a difference between Apache and Nginx web server?


Both are classified as Web Servers, but there are a few key differences. Nginx is an event-driven web server, whereas Apache is a process-driven web server.

Nginx has a reputation for being faster than Apache.

Whereas Nginx does not support OpenVMS or IBMi, Apache supports a wide range of operating systems.

Nginx is still catching up to Apache in terms of module interoperability with backend application servers.

Nginx is a lightweight web server that is rapidly gaining market share. If you're new to Nginx, you might be interested in reading some of my Nginx articles.

 Apache Ant Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. 7): How Do You Create Multiple Virtual Hosts?

Answer :

If you want tomcat to accept requests for different hosts e.g. then you must

Create ${catalina.home}/www/appBase , ${catalina.home}/www/deploy, and ${catalina.home}/conf/Catalina/

Add a host entry in the server.xml file

Create the the following file under conf/Catalina/

Add any parameters specific to this hosts webapp to this context file

Put your war file in ${catalina.home}/www/deploy

When tomcat starts, it finds the host entry, then looks for any context files and will start any apps with a context.


Ques. 8): In Apache Tomcat, what is Catalina?


Once Jasper has completed the compilation, it turns JSP into a servlet, which Catalina can then manage. Catalina is a servlet container for Tomcat. It also implements all of the Java server page and servlet specs. Catalina is a Java engine embedded into Tomcat that provides an efficient environment for servlets to execute in.


Ques. 9): What exactly do you mean by Tomcat's default port, and can it be used with SSL?


Tomcat uses port 8080 as its default port. Well, you can change it by editing the server.xml file in the Tomcat install directory's conf folder. By adjusting the property to the desired port connection port="8080" and then restarting Tomcat, the modifications will take effect.

Tomcat can use SSL, but it will require some configuration. You must complete the following tasks:

Generate a keystore

Then add a connector in server.xml

Restart Tomcat


Ques. 10): What is a mod_evasive module, and what does it do?


Mod_evasive is a third-party module that accomplishes one simple task really well. It identifies when your site is under attack by a Denial of Service (DoS) attack and mitigates the harm that the attack causes. When a single client makes repeated requests in a short period of time, mod evasive recognises this and refuses additional requests from that client. The ban can last for a very short time because it is simply reissued the following time a request is discovered from that same host.


Ques. 11): Explain Directory Structure Of Tomcat?

Answer :

Directory structure of Tomcat are:

bin - contain startup, shutdown, and other scripts (*.sh for UNIX and *.bat for Windows systems) and some jar files also there.

conf - Server configuration files (including server.xml) and related DTDs. The most important file in here is server.xml. It is the main configuration file for the container.

lib - contains JARs those are used by container and Servlet and JSP application programming interfaces (APIs).

logs - Log and output files.

webapps – deployed web applications reside in it .

work - Temporary working directories for web applications and mostly used during in JSP compilation where JSP is converted to a Java servlet.

temp - Directory used by the JVM for temporary files .


Ques. 12): Explain How Running Tomcat As A Windows Service Provides Benefits?

Answer :

Running Tomcat as a windows service provides benefits like:

Automatic startup: It is crucial for environment where you may want to remotely re-start a system after maintenance

Server startup without active user login: Tomcat is run oftenly on blade servers that may not even have an active monitor attached to them. Windows services can be started without an active user

Security: Tomcat under window service enables you to run it under a special system account, which is protected from the rest of the user accounts


Ques. 13): How Do Servlet Life Cycles Work?


The life-cycle of a typical Tomcat servlet is as follows:

Through one of its connectors, Tom-cat receives a request from a client.

This request will be processed. This request is routed through Tomcat to the proper server.

Tomcat checks that the servlet class has been loaded after the request has been forwarded to the proper servlet. If it isn't, Tomcat wraps the servlet in Java Bytecode, which is executed by the JVM and creates a servlet instance.

The servlet is started by Tomcat by invoking its init method. The servlet includes code that can inspect Tomcat configuration files and take appropriate action, as well as declare any resources it might need.

Once the servlet has been started, Tomcat can call the servlet’s service method to proceed the request

Tomcat and the servlet can co-ordinate or communicate through the use of listener classes during the servlet’s lifecycle, which tracks the servlet for a variety of state changes.

To remove the servlet, Tomcat calls the servlets destroy method.


Ques. 14): In Tomcat, what is the difference between a host and a context?


In Tomcat, the host is a component. It's a network name association for the server. On the other hand, context is an element that indicates a web application that is running on a certain virtual host. Web applications are built on top of a Web Application Archive (WAR) file or a corresponding directory that contains all of the unpacked content indicated in the servlet description.


Ques. 15): What Is The Distinction Between A Webserver And An Application Server?


The main distinction between a web server and an application server is that a web server can only execute web applications, such as servlets and JSPs, and has just one container, the Web container, that is used to understand and execute web applications. The application server has the ability to run Enterprise applications, i.e. (servlets, jsps, and EJBs)

it is having two containers:

Web Container(for interpreting/executing servlets and jsps)

EJB container(for executing EJBs).

it can perform operations like load balancing , transaction demarcation etc.


Ques. 16): Apart from Apache Tomcat, what are the different kinds of Web Servers?


There are many web servers as mentioned below:

LiteSpeed Web Server

GWS Web Server

Microsoft IIS Web Server

Nginx Web Server

Jigsaw Web Server

Sun Java System Web Server

Lighttpd Web Server


Ques. 17): How to limit upload size?


I have a web application that allows users to upload files such as word documents, pdf and so on.  How do I limit file upload by users?

You can make use of the LimitRequestBody directive to limit upload file size.

<Directory "usr/local/apache2/uploads">

LimitRequestBody 9000


The value assigned to the LimitRequestBody allows Apache to accept and store file uploads of 9000 bytes by users. You can adjust the value based on the requirement.


Ques. 18): Explain how to use WAR files to deploy a web application.


JSPs, servlets, and their associated files are placed under Tomcat's web applications directory in the appropriate subdirectories. You can combine all of the files in the web apps directory into a single compressed file with the extension.war. A web application can be run by placing a WAR file in the webapps directory. When a web server starts up, it extracts the contents of the WAR file and places them in the proper webapps sub-directories.


Ques. 19): How can an Apache Service be stopped by its control script?


The Apache Service is controlled using a script called the apachectl.

So, to stop the service, we need to run the below-mentioned commands.

#apachectl stop [for Ubuntu based system]

# /etc/inid.t/httpd.stop [for red hat based system]


Ques. 20): What is the purpose of the Listen property in Apache Tomcat?

Listening is very important for Apache Tomcat and the developers.

If a developer has numerous IPs on the server, we must explicitly indicate IP and PORT in the Listen Drive if we want Apache to evaluate only one of them.

For example:



Friday, 19 November 2021

Top 20 Oracle Accounts Payable Interview Questions & Answers


Ques: 1). Describe the Accounts Payable.


The Accounts Payable application component keeps track of and maintains all vendor accounting data. It's also a key component of the purchasing system, as deliveries and invoices are tracked by vendors. In reaction to the operative transactions, the system automatically activates postings. Similarly, the system feeds figures from bills to the Cash Management application component to help with liquidity planning.


Ques: 2). What does the term "invoice" mean?


An invoice or bill is a commercial document sent by a seller to a buyer that details the products, quantities, and agreed-upon prices for goods or services provided by the seller. The buyer must pay the supplier according to the payment conditions stated on the invoice.

In the rental business, an invoice must include a particular reference to the duration of the time being invoiced, so the invoicing amount is based on quantity, price, discount, and duration rather just quantity, price, and discount. In general, each line of a rental invoice refers to the real hours, days, weeks, months, and so on that have been billed.


Ques: 3). What's the difference between an EFT and a wire transfer?


The most common electronic payment methods are EFT and WIRE. After WIRE, EFT stands for electronic fund transfer and is the second fastest means of electronic payment. EFT is a batch-oriented system for transferring payments from one bank to another, which takes 2 to 4 days to clear and settle. WIRE, on the other hand, is a real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system for transferring funds in real-time and on a gross basis. The clearing and settlement processes take place on the same day. WIRE is more expensive than EFT, but it is also faster.


Ques: 4). What does GRN stand for?


The merchandise has been delivered to the shops department, according to a goods receipt note. The GRN, together with other crucial documentation, serves as verification of material receipt at the warehouse. This can be prepared by the stores department and approved by the plant manager. GRN contains the ordered quantity, received quantity, and acceptable quantity. On the basis of the GRN note, the bill will be passed. The inventory will be automatically updated after the GRN is prepared, and payment will be released to the vendor.

GRN contains the following details.

1.Ordered quantity .

2.Received Quantity.

3.Defective quantity in received quantity .

4.Quality standards details.


Ques: 5). Can you give a sample Process Flow for Procure to Pay Cycle?


Process flow for Procure to pay will go through two departments (Commercial & Finance)

Procure - Commercial Department 

The following steps involve to procure any item

  1. Received Requsition from concern Department
  2. Request for Quotation from Suppliers at least three
  3. Finalize the best Quotation by keeping in mind about our companies standard
  4. Check the Budget for the same
  5. Negociate with supplier for more economic pricing and finalize the payment terms
  6. Process the PO and forward to the supplier to supply the goods and services

 Pay Cycle - Finance Department

The following steps need to be fulfil

  1. Invoice should be match with PO
  2. Invoice should has all the supporting documents such as PO copy, Delivery note duly signed by receiver (our staff who authorized to received goods / store keeper)
  3. If the invoice is for services then it should be forwarded to the concern department head or project manager for his confirmation of work done and his approval
  4. Even if it not the services invoice, it should forwarded to the concern person's approval who request the PO for the same
  5. Finance can reject the invoice if it is not budgeted and ask for the reasons.
  6. After receiving all the confirmation and approvals from the concern department heads the invoice will be update in to the accounting system first in order to avoid any duplication of Invoice and PO (it shown on accounting package if the invoice is duplicate if not, at least it tells you if the PO already used or cancel)
  7. Finance approved the invoice and process the payment base on payment terms with the supplier.


Ques: 6). How does the payment system operate?


An account's open items can only be removed if an identical offsetting amount is posted to the account. To put it another way, the sum of the things assigned to each other must equal zero. The system enters a clearing document number and the clearing date in these objects during clearing. Invoices in a vendor account are marked as paid, and items in a bank clearing account are marked as cleared in this fashion.

In most cases, the payment programme is used to settle invoices. As a result, manual clearance of open items is rarely required. However, you may have to manually remove objects on occasion if, for example, you receive a refund from your vendor or you have set up a direct debit procedure.


Ques: 7). What is the process of creating an Invoices and transferring it to GL?


 1. create batch

2. create invoice

3. create distribution

4. validate the invoice

5. actions -à approve

6. if individual create accounting click ok

7. If batch go to batch create accounting.

8. Create accounting hits Payable Accounting(Transfer) ??Program which will create accounting.

9. Run Transfer to GL Concurrent Program

10. Journal Import

11. Post journals

12. Hits balances.


Ques: 8). What Is Gl Date Basis & Prepayment Settlement Date?


The date you want Payables to use as the default accounting date for invoices during invoice entry Invoice Date. Invoice date you enter during invoice entry. System Date. Current date for your Payables system. The date you enter the invoice. 

Goods Received/Invoice Date. Date that you enter in the Date Goods Received field. If no value is entered, then the invoice date is used.

Goods Received/System Date. Date that you enter in the Date Goods Received field. If no value is entered, then the system date is used.

Prepayment Settlement Days. Number of days you want Payables to add to the system date to calculate a default settlement date for a prepayment. Payables  prevents you from applying the prepayment to an invoice until on or after the settlement date.


Ques: 9). What's the difference between interface and base tables?


The following is a comparison of the interface and base tables.

Interface table: The interface table is where the data is checked before being posted to the base tables. Oracle is seeded in a large number of interfaces. You can think of the interface as the data's entry point, and it checks the data's sanity.

Base tables: As told earlier once the data is validated will get updated in the base tables, and is considered as the data which is in the base table is accurate and used in many ways. (Reporting..etc..)

The base tables in AP are as follows:

1) ap_invoices_all

2) ap_invoice_payments_all

3) ap_invoice_distibutions_All

4) ap_payment_schdules

5) ap_payment_dustributions_all

6) ap_checks_all

7) ap_accounting_events_all

8) ap_bank_accounts_all

9) ap_bank_accounts_uses_all


Ques: 10). How many different forms of buy order agreements/orders are there?


A) Standard Purchase Order: Standard purchase orders are used for one-time purchases of a variety of items. When you know the specifics of the goods or services you need, as well as expected pricing, quantities, delivery schedules, and accounting distributions, you may write standard purchase orders. Because the required information is known if you use encumbrance accounting, the purchase order may be encumbered.

B) Planned Purchase Order: A planned purchase order is a long-term commitment to purchase items or services from a single supplier. You must include preliminary delivery dates as well as all specifics for the items or services you wish to purchase, such as the charge account, quantity, and anticipated cost.

EXAMPLE: Buying Christmas gifts from a specific retailer.

C) Contract PO: You form a contract purchase agreement with your supplier to agree on particular terms and conditions without specifying the items and services you would be purchasing, such as "for $ amount, you must supply this much quantity.” You can then issue ordinary purchase orders referencing your contracts, and if you use encumbrance accounting, you can encumber these purchase orders.

D) Blanket Purchase Agreement: You construct blanket purchase agreements when you know the details of the items or services you expect to buy from a specific provider over a period of time but not the details of your delivery schedules. Before actually acquiring your things, you can use blanket purchase agreements to define negotiated rates.

A Blanket Purchase Agreement is a type of contract between you and your supplier that specifies the price at which you will buy products from them in the future. The price of the item, not the quantity, is entered here. The amount of the items is entered when the release is created. In the release, there is no way to change the pricing. The Released Amount is calculated by multiplying the amount by the price. Assume you have a contract with your supplier that states you can only buy products worth a certain amount against the contract.


Ques: 11). What exactly are recurring invoices? What are the procedures in setting up an AP?


In some cases, suppliers fail to provide invoices. However, housing payments must be made: rent, lease rents. In this case, we must create invoices on a period-by-period basis. To accomplish this, we'll need to design a single recurring invoice template. The term "template" refers to the process of making several invoices from a single master copy. We're making a single invoice master copy, which is also known as a recurring invoice or recurring invoice template.


 1) Create one special calendar

2) Create one full distribution set

3) Enter payment terms in the recurring invoice window

4) Enter the template no, first invoice amount, special invoice amounts


Ques: 12). What Are The Different Types Of Holds That Are Used To Prevent Invoice Payment?


Holds that we can manually apply or that Payables automatically apply to block payment and, in some situations, the generation of accounting entries for an invoice. We can manually release specific holds that Payables applies during Approval, and we can remove holds that we apply.

Payables offers us with some default invoice holds, and we can construct our own based on our invoice approval requirements. We can also put a hold on the supplier rather than on each individual invoice to prohibit payment of supplier invoices.

There are two major category of hold

Manual Hold

System Hold.

Manual hold we can create and release manually where as system hold is created by system and normally released by system after due rectification.

There are three types of holds we can use to prevent payment of an invoice

Invoice Hold:We can manually apply one or more Invoice Hold Reason Approvals (”holds”) to an invoice using the Invoice Holds window of the Invoice Workbench.

Scheduled Payment Hold: We can hold payment on part of an invoice by placing one or more of the scheduled payments on hold in the Scheduled Payments window of the Invoice Workbench.

Supplier Hold: In the Supplier Sites window, we can enable the Hold All Payments, Hold Unapproved Invoices, or Hold Unmatched Invoices options. We also have the option of specifying an Invoice Amount Limit for a supplier site.


Ques: 13). What Are The Invoice Matching Option?


The following are the Invoice Matching Option  available :

Purchase Order Matching:

2–Way. When you match to a purchase order or receipt, Payables Approval performs these control checks:

Quantity billed <= Quantity ordered (Symbol mean lessor)

Invoice price <= Purchase order price

Receipts Matching:

3–Way. Control checks 1 and 2, plus:

Quantity billed <= Quantity received

Invoice Matching:

4–Way. Control checks 1, 2, and 3, plus:

Quantity billed <= Quantity accepted


Ques: 14). What is the difference between Oracle Payables' Primary and Secondary Ledgers?


The Primary Ledger is the Main Ledger, while the Secondary Ledger is the Replica of the Primary Ledger. All of our transactions are recorded in the Primary Ledger. The main reason for using Primary and Secondary Ledger is the discrepancy between the Organizational and Statutory Requirements.

For example, a US corporation with an office in India has a calendar that runs from October to September, but the Indian calendar goes from April to March. This is when the notion of the Primary and Secondary Ledger comes into play. Whereas the primary calendar might be designed according to US standards, However, according to India's Statutory Requirements, the secondary calendar is used.


Ques: 15). What Are The Approval Levels That Match?


We can execute online matching of invoices and original purchase orders or purchase order receipts if we utilise Oracle Payables with Oracle Purchasing or another connected purchasing product. Matching ensures that we only pay for the items and services we requested, and that our vendors do not overcharge us. The Payables Approval Program applies holds to invoices that exceed the amount and quantity tolerances we establish, preventing payment until the holds are released.


Ques: 16). How does the payment system operate?


Open items on an account can only be cleared if an equal and opposite amount is posted to the account. To put it another way, the total number of items assigned to each other must be zero. During clearing, the machine enters a clearing document number and the clearing date in these items. Products in a bank clearing account are marked as cleared, and invoices in a vendor account are indicated as paying.

The payment programme is typically used to settle invoices. As a result, removing open things manually is rarely required. You may need to manually clear products if, for example, you request a refund from your supplier or have set up a direct debit mechanism.


Ques: 17). What should be the setup steps when i wish to implement TDS features only?


Setup only Step 16-21 of the India Localization Setups. Refer to the Setup Overview chapter of the India Localization User Guide.

Following India Localization Setups need to be completed:

Define TDS Related Information for the Organization

Define Income Tax Authority

Define TDS Sections

Define TDS Tax Codes

Defining TDS year Information

Define TDS Details for Suppliers


Ques: 18). What causes the Error? When attempting to match an invoice to a PO, does App-Sqlap-10715 appear?


When an invoice is matched to a PO for the complete quantity, the PO is ready for invoicing. If the invoice line is rejected (using the Discard button), the Match button becomes available again, reversing the PO match, and the invoice is matched to the same PO for a different quantity. The following message appears at that time: APP-SQLAP-10715: For invoicing purposes, this purchase order line has been closed. Before continuing with this match, you might want to look over the purchase order.

When we trash a line in R12, the status is only updated at validation time. When we match or reverse POs, we update the quantity billed and amount billed, but the status is only affected when we validate the invoice. Validate the invoice before proceeding with any other actions on the invoice after pressing the Discard button. For more information, see Doc ID 456370.1 and Bug 5927520.


Ques: 19). How a PO Match comes over as Exclusive Tax Lines for a reason?


Taxes are always exclusive in PO, unless otherwise specified in the PO application/product design. As a result, in AP, taxes on an invoice linked to a PO are calculated as exclusive taxes. More information may be found in Bug 6748767 R12: APXINWKB - JAPAN INCLUSIVE TAX, PO MATCH COMES OVER AS EXCLUSIVE TAX LINES. For more details, see Doc ID 549988.1.


Ques: 20).  What Are Offset Taxes and How Do They Work? What Is It Used For?


Offset Taxes: Offset tax codes are used on invoices to record self–assessed taxes while reducing or totally offsetting tax burden. Because offset taxes have negative–amount rates, you must input negative–amount invoice tax distributions when using them.

It is utilised in the European Union, and if you are a member of the EU, you can use the Intra–EU VAT Audit Trail report to report on these zero–rated taxes.

Wednesday, 17 November 2021

Top 20 Apache Ambari interview Questions & Answers


Ques: 1). Describe Apache Ambari's main characteristics.


Apache Ambari is an Apache product that was created with the goal of making Hadoop applications easier to manage. Ambari assists in the management of the Hadoop project.

  • Provisioning is simple.
  • Project management made simple
  • Monitoring of Hadoop clusters
  • Availability of a user-friendly interface
  • Hadoop management web UI
  • RESTful API support

 Apache Tapestry Interview Questions and Answers

Ques: 2). Why do you believe Apache Ambari has a bright future?


With the growing need for big data technologies like Hadoop, we've witnessed a surge in data analysis, resulting in gigantic clusters. Companies are turning to technologies like Apache Ambari for better cluster management, increased operational efficiency, and increased visibility. Furthermore, we've noted how HortonWorks, a technology titan, is working on Ambari to make it more scalable. As a result, learning Hadoop as well as technologies like Apache Ambari is advantageous.

 Apache NiFi Interview Questions & Answers

Ques: 3). What are the core benefits for Hadoop users by using Apache Ambari?


The Apache Ambari is a great gift for individuals who use Hadoop in their day to day work life. With the use of Ambari, Hadoop users will get the core benefits:

1. The installation process is simplified
2. Configuration and overall management is simplified
3. It has a centralized security setup process
4. It gives out full visibility in terms of Cluster health
5. It is extensively extendable and has an option to customize if needed.

 Apache Spark Interview Questions & Answers

Ques: 4). What Are The Checks That Should Be Done Before Deploying A Hadoop Instance?


Before actually deploying the Hadoop instance, the following checklist should be completed:

  • Check for existing installations
  • Set up passwordless SSH
  • Enable NTP on the clusters
  • Check for DNS
  • Disable the SELinux
  • Disable iptables

 Apache Hive Interview Questions & Answers

Ques: 5 As a Hadoop user or system administrator, why should you choose Apache Ambari?


Using Apache Ambari can provide a Hadoop user with a number of advantages.

A system administrator can use Ambari to – Install Hadoop across any number of hosts using a step-by-step guide supplied by Ambari, while Ambari handles Hadoop installation setup.

Using Ambari, centrally administer Hadoop services across the cluster.

Using the Ambari metrics system, efficiently monitor the state and health of a Hadoop cluster. Furthermore, the Ambari alert framework sends out timely notifications for any system difficulties, like as disc space issues or node status.


Ques: 6). Can you explain Apache Ambari architecture?


Apache Ambari consists of following major components-

  • Ambari Server
  • Ambari Agent
  • Ambari Web

Apache Ambari Architecture

The all metadata is handled by the Ambari server, which is made up of a Postgres database instance as indicated in the diagram. The Ambari agent is installed on each computer in the cluster, and the Ambari server manages each host through it.

An Ambari agent is a member of the host that delivers heartbeats from the nodes to the Ambari server, as well as numerous operational metrics, to determine the nodes' health condition.

Ambari Web UI is a client-side JavaScript application that performs cluster operations by regularly accessing the Ambari RESTful API. Furthermore, using the RESTful API, it facilitates asynchronous communication between the application and the server.


Ques: 7). Apache Ambari supports how many layers of Hadoop components, and what are they?


Apache Ambari supports three tiers of Hadoop components, which are as follows:

1. Hadoop core components

  • Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)
  • MapReduce

2. Essential Hadoop components

  • Apache Pig
  • Apache Hive
  • Apache HCatalog
  • WebHCat
  • Apache HBase
  • Apache ZooKeeper

3. Components of Hadoop support

  • Apache Oozie
  • Apache Sqoop
  • Ganglia
  • Nagios


Ques: 8). What different sorts of Ambari repositories are there?


Ambari Repositories are divided into four categories, as below:

  1. Ambari: Ambari server, monitoring software packages, and Ambari agent are all stored in this repository.
  2. HDP-UTILS: The Ambari and HDP utility packages are stored in this repository.
  3. HDP: Hadoop Stack packages are stored in this repository.
  4. EPEL (Enterprise Linux Extra Packages): The Enterprise Linux repository now includes an extra set of software.


Ques: 9). How can I manually set up a local repository?


When there is no active internet connection available, this technique is used. Please follow the instructions below to create a local repository:

1. First and foremost, create an Apache httpd host.
2. Download a Tarball copy of each repository's entire contents.
3. After it has been downloaded, the contents must be extracted.


Ques: 10). What is a local repository, and when are you going to utilise one?


A local repository is a hosted place for Ambari software packages in the local environment. When the enterprise clusters have no or limited outbound Internet access, this is the method of choice.


Ques: 11). What are the benefits of setting up a local repository?


First and foremost by setting up a local repository, you can access Ambari software packages without internet access. Along with that, you can achieve benefits like –

Enhanced governance with better installation performance

Routine post-installation cluster operations like service start and restart operations


Ques: 12). What are the new additions in Ambari 2.6 versions?


Ambari 2.6.2 added the following features:

  • It will protect Zeppelin Notebook SSL credentials
  • We can set appropriate HTTP headers to use Cloud Object Stores with HDP
  • Ambari 2.6.1 added the following feature:
  • Conditional Installation of  LZO packages through Ambari
  • Ambari 2.6.0 added the following features:
  • Distributed mode of Ambari Metrics System’s (AMS) along with multiple Collectors
  • Host Recovery improvements for the restart
  • moving masters with minimum impact and scale testing
  • Improvement in Data Archival & Purging in Ambari Infra


Ques: 13). List Out The Commands That Are Used To Start, Check The Progress And Stop The Ambari Server?

Answer :

The following are the commands that are used to do the following activities:

To start the Ambari server

ambari-server start

To check the Ambari server processes

ps -ef | grep Ambari

To stop the Ambari server

ambari-server stop


Ques: 14). What all tasks you can perform for managing host using Ambari host tab?


Using Hosts tab, we can perform the following tasks:

  • Analysing Host Status
  • Searching the Hosts Page
  • Performing Host related Actions
  • Managing Host Components
  • Decommissioning a Master node or Slave node
  • Deleting a Component
  • Setting up Maintenance Mode
  • Adding or removing Hosts to a Cluster
  • Establishing Rack Awareness


Ques: 15). What all tasks you can perform for managing services using Ambari service tab?


Using Services tab, we can perform the following tasks:

  • Start and Stop of All Services
  • Display of Service Operating Summary
  • Adding a Service
  • Configuration Settings change
  • Performing Service Actions
  • Rolling Restarts
  • Background Operations monitoring
  • Service removal
  • Auditing operations
  • Using Quick Links
  • YARN Capacity Scheduler refresh
  • HDFS management
  • Atlas management in a Storm Environment


Ques: 16). Is there a relationship between the amount of free RAM and disc space required and the number of HDP cluster nodes?


Without a doubt, it has. The amount of RAM and disc required depends on the number of nodes in your cluster. In typically, 1 GB of memory and 10 GB of disc space are required for each node. Similarly, for a 100-node cluster, 4GB of memory and 100GB of disc space are required. To get all of the details, you'll need to look at a specific version.


Ques: 17). What tasks you can skill for managing services using the Ambari subsidiary bank account?


using the Services report, we can do the bearing in mind tasks:

  • Start and Stop of All Services
  • Display of Service Operating Summary
  • Adding a Service
  • Configuration Settings regulate
  • Performing Service Actions
  • Rolling Restarts
  • Background Operations monitoring
  • Service removal
  • Auditing operations
  • Using Quick Links
  • YARN Capacity Scheduler refresh
  • HDFS presidency
  • Atlas approach in a Storm Environment


Ques: 18). What is the best method for installing the Ambari agent on all 1000 hosts in the HDP cluster?


Because the cluster contains 1000 nodes, we should not manually install the Ambari agent on each node. Instead, we should set up a password-less ssh connection between the Ambari host and all of the cluster's nodes. To remotely access and install the Ambari Agent, Ambari Server hosts employ SSH public key authentication.


Ques: 19). What can I do if I have admin capabilities in Ambari?


Becoming a Hadoop Administrator is a difficult job. On, you can find all of the available Hadoop Admin training for HDP, Cloudera, and other platforms (visit now). You can create a cluster, manage the users in that cluster, and create groups if you are an Ambari Admin. All of these permissions are granted to the default admin user. You can grant the same or different permissions to another user even if you are an Amabari administrator.


Ques: 20).  How is recovery achieved in Ambari?


Recovery happens in Ambari in the moreover ways:

Based in remarks to activities

In Ambari after a restart master checks for pending undertakings and reschedules them previously all assimilation out is persisted here. Also, the master rebuilds the come clean machines at the back there is a restart, as the cluster market is persisted in the database. While lawsuit beautifies master actually catastrophe in the in front recording their take keep busy, along amid there is a race condition. The events, on the other hand, should be idempotent, which is a unique consideration. And the master restarts any behavior that has not been marked as occurring or has failed in the database. These persistent behaviors are seen in Redo Logs.

Based approaching the desired make known

While the master attempts to make the cluster flesh and blood publicise, you will be encircled by more to in as per the intended freshen appendix, as the master persists in the desired own going in savings account to for of the cluster.