December 11, 2022

Top 20 AWS Braket Interview Questions and Answers

The Amazon Braket Software Development Kit (SDK) is a technology-neutral developer framework that enables you to create quantum algorithms and execute them via the Amazon Braket service on various quantum computing hardware and simulators. The SDK enables you to track, monitor, and assess the outcomes of quantum jobs sent to Amazon Braket. You can test your algorithms using the local quantum circuit simulator that is part of the Amazon Braket SDK.

Fully managed Jupyter notebooks with the Amazon Braket SDK pre-installed and sample tutorials are provided by Amazon Braket to help you get going quickly. You can utilise Amazon Braket from any local integrated development environment (IDE) of your choice because the Amazon Braket SDK is open-sourced.


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Ques. 1): How are other AWS services integrated with Amazon Braket?


For monitoring, event-based processing, user access management, and logs, Amazon Braket offers connections with Amazon CloudWatch, Amazon EventBridge, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), and AWS CloudTrail. Results from your simulations and quantum computations will be saved in your account's Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3).


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Ques. 2): Can I use Amazon Braket for academic research?


Yes. Researchers at universities all over the world study the Amazon Braket. Start with the Amazon Braket console, our Github repository, or the AWS Cloud Credit for Research programme to apply for funding to use Amazon Braket. If you don't have a URL for the pricing calculator, please provide a placeholder in the application process.


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Ques. 3): Does the Amazon Braket SDK support programming at the pulse level?


Yes. On quantum computers from Rigetti Computing and Oxford Quantum Circuits, you can directly programme quantum circuits using gates, pulses, or a mix of the two. To concentrate on optimising particular activities and fine-tune performance, you may also deliberately insert blocks of pulse instructions in selected locations within the programme.

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Ques. 4): What is Amazon Braket good for?


You can explore potential applications and learn how to programme quantum computers using Amazon Braket. Choose from a selection of pre-built quantum algorithms or create your own from start. You can use the SDK that Amazon Braket offers to operate locally on a laptop or on its fully managed notebook environment. A simulator for quantum circuits is part of the SDK. In order to validate and test your implementation, you can run your algorithms on AWS managed infrastructure using the fully managed quantum circuit simulators offered by the Amazon Braket service. When you're ready, you can use various quantum computers, also known as quantum processing units (QPUs), from our hardware suppliers to run your algorithm on Amazon Braket.

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Ques. 5): I want to mimic my algorithm, but why?


Classical computers are used to run quantum circuit simulations. Instead of paying for and waiting for access to specialised quantum machines, you can test your quantum algorithms using simulators at a lower cost. Before moving on to running algorithms on quantum hardware, simulation is a practical technique to quickly debug quantum circuits and troubleshoot and optimise them. In order to validate the outcomes of near-term quantum computing hardware and investigate the impacts of noise, classical simulation is equally crucial.

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Ques. 6): What is the TN1 simulator?


For structured quantum circuits up to 50 qubits in size, TN1 is a fully controlled, high-performance tensor network simulator. To determine the most efficient method of computing the outcome of the circuit, a tensor network simulator converts quantum circuits into a structured graph. Circuits having local gates, inherent structure, and sparse circuits can all be successfully simulated using TN1.


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Ques. 7): How can I tell if a circuit will work on TN1?


TN1 will try to mimic your circuit as long as it falls within the qubit number and circuit depth restrictions outlined below. Contrary to SV1, it is not possible to predict the runtime with any degree of accuracy using only the qubit count and circuit depth. The so-called "rehearsal phase" is when TN1 attempts to determine the most effective computational path for your circuit and calculates how long the "contraction phase" will take to complete. You will only be charged for the time spent in the rehearsal phase if the projected contraction time is more than the TN1 limit.

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Ques. 8): Analog Hamiltonian Simulation: What Is It?


In contrast to universal, gate-based quantum computing, analogue Hamiltonian Simulation, or AHS, is a different quantum computing paradigm. AHS-capable devices are Hamiltonian-representable special-purpose QPUs created to address a constrained set of issues. Users of AHS can define an interesting Hamiltonian, and the quantum computer adjusts its settings to simulate the steady-state evolution of a quantum state under that Hamiltonian. AHS systems can already simulate systems with hundreds of qubits, which are impractical to model classically, because these Hamiltonians are directly implemented on the system and do not suffer from the overhead required to express algorithms in terms of circuits and gates. Via QuEra QPUs, Amazon Braket supports AHS.

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Ques. 9): How is the QuEra QPU put to use?


Rydberg atoms are organised in a two-dimensional, programmable array of optical tweezers in the QuEra system, a programmable QPU. The neutral Rubidium-87 atoms used to create the qubits in this device have two possible states: the ground state and a very excited Rydberg state. An effective spin Hamiltonian with local interactions results from the decay of the Rydberg-Rydberg interaction between atoms as the sixth power of the distance between the atoms. A transverse magnetic field can be tuned by laser beams to produce intriguing spin dynamics that can result in new ground and non-equilibrium states. Researchers accessing this device through Braket will be able to program the geometry of the two-dimensional atom arrangement, and vary the strength of the longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields in a time-dependent manner, all using the Braket SDK. This will produce an effective Hamiltonian of interest, the continuous time evolution of which can be studied on the device. 


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Ques. 10): Why should I use Hybrid Jobs?


Three key advantages are offered by Braket Hybrid Jobs. Running hybrid quantum-classical algorithms is made easier first. Because they are frequently unfamiliar with cloud computing, many quantum researchers do not want to set up and maintain their computer environment before executing their hybrid algorithm. You simply need to indicate your chosen compute instance when using Hybrid Jobs, or just use the default. Braket Hybrid Jobs will launch the classical resources after waiting for the target QPU to become available, perform the task in environments made for containers, send the output to Amazon S3, and then release the compute resources.

Second, Hybrid Jobs offer real-time information on active algorithms. As a component of your algorithm, you can specify unique metrics that will be automatically recorded by Amazon CloudWatch and shown in the Amazon Braket dashboard. This allows you to monitor the development of your algorithms.

Third, running hybrid algorithms from your own environment performs worse than using Amazon Braket Hybrid Jobs. Your job has priority access to the chosen QPU for the duration of its operation. This means that activities carried out on that device as part of your work will be carried out before jobs that could be in the device's queue. This results in shorter and more predictable run times for hybrid algorithms, and ultimately better results by reducing the detrimental effects of slowly changing device characteristics (‘device drift’) on algorithm performance.


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Ques. 11): How do I decide which of PennyLane's embedded simulators to use?


If the problem size is small enough to fit within the GPU memory, then hybrid techniques like QML, QAOA, or VQE can be employed with the PennyLane lightning.gpu simulator. For memory-intensive algorithms that cannot fit in GPU memory, such as variational algorithms with high qubit counts (29+ qubits), the lightning.qubit CPU-based simulator can be utilised. You should be aware that your charges will vary depending on whether you utilise a CPU or GPU instance type.


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Ques. 12): How can I monitor my use of and spending on Amazon Braket across many projects?


A logical grouping that makes sense for your team or organisation, such as a cost centre, department, or project, can be created using tags to arrange your AWS resources. The quantum jobs you create in Amazon Braket can have tags applied to them. You can activate user-defined tags for cost allocation tracking on the AWS Billing and Cost Management dashboard after creating and using them. AWS uses the tags to group your expenses into different categories and sends you a monthly cost allocation report so you can keep track of your AWS expenses. Your cost allocation report displays the tag keys as additional columns with the applicable values for each row, so it's easier to track your costs if you use a consistent set of tag keys.


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Ques. 13): Why should our business be considering quantum computing now?


Despite being a young technology, quantum computing has the potential to have a profound long-term impact on a wide range of sectors. Designing practical quantum applications and creating quantum algorithms both require novel abilities and potentially quite distinct strategies. It will take time to develop this competence, which necessitates having access to quantum technology and computer languages. Organizations can examine the condition of existing technologies, determine how they might affect their business, and plan for the future with the aid of Amazon Braket and the Amazon Quantum Solutions Lab.


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Ques. 14): What is pulse-level access?


Modern quantum computers are noisy, and in order to examine noise or cross-talk, create new and more reliable gates, create error-mitigating techniques, and investigate novel quantum algorithms, researchers frequently need access to the lowest level of hardware control. Pulse-control allows you to control the low-level, analogue signals or pulses that a quantum processor uses to control its qubits.


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Ques. 15): What simulators are available from Amazon Braket?


You have a choice of four quantum circuit simulators from Amazon Braket: the local simulator included in the SDK, three on-demand simulators, including the general-purpose quantum circuit simulator SV1, the noise-effect simulation tool DM1, and the high-performance tensor network simulator TN1. You can select the strategy that best meets your needs using these alternatives.


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Ques. 16): What does DM1 simulator mean?


With the help of the fully-managed density matrix simulator DM1, you may examine how actual noise affects your quantum algorithms. You can use this to create error-mitigation techniques to improve the accuracy of the results produced by the quantum computers of today.

Circuit modelling for up to 17 qubits is supported by DM1. To speed up your investigations, it can perform up to 35 simulations concurrently. Before using DM1, you can use the local noise simulator in the Amazon Braket SDK for quick prototyping and troubleshooting.


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Ques. 17): What are the benefits of using embedded simulators for hybrid jobs?


In order to eliminate the round-trip delays that come with using a fully-managed, on-demand simulator like SV1 and your containerized traditional code, embedded simulators are a collection of high-performance simulators that are directly embedded in the same container as your application code. Advanced features supported by embedded simulators include the adjoint approach for computing gradients, which minimises the number of circuits required. The lightning.gpu simulator, which is accelerated with NVIDIA cuQuantum SDK and created specifically for executing quantum circuit simulation on powerful GPUs, is one of the embedded PennyLane simulators that Amazon Braket currently supports.


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Ques. 18): What is QSL, or Quantum Solutions Lab?


The Amazon Quantum Solutions Lab is a cooperative research and professional services initiative staffed with quantum computing experts that can help you explore quantum computing more efficiently and strive to tackle the difficulties that this emerging technology presents.


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Ques. 19): AWS Center for Quantum Computing: What is It?


The AWS Center for Quantum Computing is a research initiative that unites academic institutions that are pioneers in the field of quantum computing with scientists and engineers from Amazon. Together, they study the advancement of quantum technologies by working on near-term applications, error-correction techniques, hardware architectures, and programming paradigms. On the California Institute of Technology campus, we set up the AWS Center for Quantum Computing (Caltech). Through the Amazon Scholars programme, the Center now works with scientists from Caltech, Stanford, Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Chicago.


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Ques. 20): What distinguishes executing a task on a QPU from executing it on a simulator?


The procedures for running a quantum task on a QPU are identical to those for running on a simulator; while performing API calls within the Amazon Braket SDK, you just select the back-end, or device. Both of them are compute activities for which you can use API calls within the Amazon Braket SDK to request various back-ends or devices. The service offers a variety of simulators and quantum computers that can be used as devices. It only takes one line of code to switch from one device to another. Simulators, however, are constantly accessible, whereas QPU resources could require a delay.



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