May 06, 2022

Top 20 AWS CloudFormation Interview Questions ans Answers

 

                        AWS CloudFormation is a configuration orchestration tool that lets you define your infrastructure in order to automate deployments. CloudFormation uses a declarative approach to configuration, which means you tell it how you want your environment to look and it follows your instructions.


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AWS CloudFormation is a service that assists you in modelling and setting up your Amazon Web Services resources so you can spend less time managing them and more time working on your AWS-based applications. You construct a template that outlines all of the AWS resources you want (such as Amazon EC2 instances or Amazon RDS DB instances), and AWS CloudFormation handles provisioning and configuration for you.

In addition to JSON, YAML may be used to generate CloudFormation templates. You may also use AWS CloudFormation Designer to graphically construct your templates and see how your resources are interconnected. 


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Ques. 1): Explain the working model of CloudFormation.

Answer:

First, we must code our infrastructure in a template, which is a YAML or JSON text-based file.

Then we use the AWS CloudFormation tool to write our code locally. Otherwise, we can use the S3 bucket to store a YAML or JSON file.

Create a stack based on our template code using the AWS CF GUI or the Command Line Interface.

Finally, CloudFormation deploys resources, provisioned them, and configured the template we specified.


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Ques. 2): Are there any restrictions on how many resources may be produced in a stack?

Answer:

See Resources in AWS CloudFormation quotas for more information on the number of resources you can define in a template. Smaller templates and stacks, as well as modularizing your application across multiple stacks, are best practises for reducing the blast radius of resource changes and troubleshooting issues with multiple resource dependencies faster, as smaller groups of resources have less complex dependencies than larger groups.


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Ques. 3): Describe the features of AWS CloudFormation.

Answer:

By treating infrastructure as code, AWS CloudFormation makes it simple to model a collection of connected AWS and third-party resources, provision them rapidly and consistently, and manage them throughout their lifecycles.

  • Extensibility - Using the AWS CloudFormation CLI, an open-source tool that speeds the development process and includes local testing and code generation capabilities, you can create your own resource providers.
  • Management of multiple accounts and regions - CloudFormation With a single CloudFormation template, you can provision a common set of AWS resources across many accounts and regions. StackSets takes care of provisioning, updating, and deleting stacks automatically and safely, no matter where they are.
  • Authoring with JSON/YAML - CloudFormation allows you to model your whole cloud environment in text files using JSON/YAML. To define what AWS resources you wish to build and configure, you can use open-source declarative languages like JSON or YAML.
  • Safety controls - CloudFormation automates and manages the provisioning and updating of your infrastructure. There are no manual controls or steps that could lead to mistakes.
  • Dependency management - During stack management activities, AWS CloudFormation automatically maintains dependencies between your resources.


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Ques. 4): What may AWS CloudFormation be used for by developers?

Answer:

Developers may use a simple, declarative language to deploy and update compute, database, and many other resources, abstracting away the complexities of specific resource APIs. AWS CloudFormation is designed to manage resource lifecycles in a consistent, predictable, and secure manner, including automatic rollbacks, state management, and resource management across accounts and regions. Multiple ways to generate resources have been added recently, including using the AWS CDK for higher-level languages, importing existing resources, detecting configuration drift, and a new Registry that makes it easy to construct unique types that inherit many basic CloudFormation features.


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Ques. 5): Is Amazon EC2 tagging supported by AWS CloudFormation?

Answer:

Yes. AWS templates can be labelled with Amazon EC2 resources that support the tagging capability. Template parameters, other resource names, resource attribute values (e.g. addresses), or values derived by simple functions can all be used as tag values (e.g., a concatenated a list of strings). CloudFormation automatically assigns the name of the CloudFormation stack to Amazon EBS volumes and Amazon EC2 instances.


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Ques. 6): In AWS CloudFormation, what is a circular dependency? What can be done about it?

Answer:

An interleaved reliance exists between two resources.

Resource X relies on Resource Y, and Resource Y relies on Resource X.

Because AWS CloudFormation is unable to clearly establish which resource should be produced first in this circumstance, you will receive a circular dependency error.

Interactions between services that make them mutually dependent can produce the AWS CloudFormation circular dependence.

Because AWS CloudFormation is unable to properly decide which resource should be produced first when two are reliant on one another, we will receive a circular dependency error.

The first step is to look over the resources listed and ensure that AWS CloudFormation can figure out what resource order to use.

Add a DependsOn attribute to resources that depend on other resources in your template to fix a dependency error.

We can use DependsOn to express that a particular resource must be produced before another.


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Ques. 7): What is the difference between a resource and a module?

Answer:

A Resource Type is a code package that contains provisioning logic and allows you to manage the lifecycle of a resource, such as an Amazon EC2 Instance or an Amazon DynamoDB Table, from creation to deletion while abstracting away difficult API interactions. Resource Types include a schema that defines a resource's shape and properties, as well as the logic required to supply, update, delete, and describe it. A Datadog monitor, MongoDB Atlas Project, or Atlassian Opsgenie User are examples of third-party Resource Types in the CloudFormation Public Registry.

Modules are reusable building elements that can be used in numerous CloudFormation templates and are treated similarly to native CloudFormation resources. These building blocks can be used to create common patterns of application design for a single resource, such as best practises for defining an Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instance, or several resources.


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Ques. 8): Is there a list of sample templates I can use to get a feel for AWS CloudFormation?

Answer:

Yes, CloudFormation includes sample templates that you may use to try out the service and learn more about its features. Our sample templates show how to connect and use numerous AWS resources simultaneously while adhering to best practises for multiple Availability Zone redundancy, scaling out, and alarming. To get started, simply go to the AWS Management Console, click Create Stack, and follow the instructions to choose and run one of our samples. Select your stack in the console after it has been generated and look at the Template and Parameter tabs to see the details of the template file that was used to create the stack. On GitHub, there are also some sample templates.


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Ques. 9): What distinguishes AWS CloudFormation from AWS Elastic Beanstalk?

Answer:

AWS CloudFormation allows you to provision and describe all of your cloud environment's infrastructure resources. AWS Elastic Beanstalk, on the other hand, provides an environment that makes it simple to deploy and run cloud applications.

AWS CloudFormation caters to the infrastructure requirements of a wide range of applications, including legacy and existing business applications. AWS Elastic Beanstalk, on the other hand, is used in conjunction with developer tools to assist you manage the lifespan of your applications.


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Ques. 10): What happens if one of the resources in a stack is unable to be created?

Answer:

The automatic rollback on error option is enabled by default. If all individual operations succeed, CloudFormation will only construct or update all resources in your stack. If they don't, CloudFormation resets the stack to its last known stable state.

For example, if you mistakenly exceeded your Elastic IP address limit, or if you don't have access to an EC2 AMI you're trying to execute. This functionality allows you to rely on the fact that stacks are constructed completely or partially, making system administration and layered solutions built on top of CloudFormation easier.


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Ques. 11): What makes AWS different from third-party resource providers?

The origin of AWS and third-party resource providers is the key distinction. Amazon and AWS create and maintain AWS resource providers to manage AWS resources and services. Three AWS resource providers, for example, assist you in managing Amazon DynamoDB, AWS Lambda, and Amazon EC2 resources. AWS::DynamoDB::Table, AWS::Lambda::Function, and AWS::EC2::Instance are among the resource types available through these providers. Visit our documentation for a complete list of references.

Another corporation, organisation, or developer community creates third-party resource providers. They can assist you in managing AWS and non-AWS resources, such as AWS application resources and non-AWS SaaS software services like monitoring, team productivity, issue management, or version control management tools.


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Ques. 12): How does AWS Cloud Pipeline interact with CloudFormation?

Answer:

You can use AWS CodePipeline to trigger a Cloud Formation template to run in the deployment phase.

The pipeline has following stages:

Source phase: Fetch the latest commit.

Build phase: Build the code into a docker image and push it to ECR.

Deploy phase: Take the latest docker image from ECR, deploy it to ECS


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Ques. 13): On top of CloudFormation, what does AWS Serverless Application Model offer?

Answer:

The AWS Serverless Application Model is an open-source architecture for creating serverless apps on Amazon Web Services.

AWS SAM includes a template for defining serverless applications.

AWS CloudFormation allows you to design a template that describes your application's resources and manages the stack as a whole.

You construct a template that outlines all of the AWS resources you need, and AWS CloudFormation handles the rest of the provisioning and configuration.

AWS SAM is a template language extension for AWS CloudFormation that allows you to design serverless AWS Lambda apps at a higher level.

It aids CloudFormation in the setup and deployment of serverless applications.

It automates common tasks such as function role creation, and makes it easier to write CloudFormation templates for your serverless applications.


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Ques. 14): What is the Public Registry for AWS CloudFormation?

Answer: The CloudFormation Public Registry is a new searchable and maintained catalogue of extensions that includes resource types (provisioning logic) and modules provided by APN Partners and the developer community. Anyone can now publish resource types and Modules on the CloudFormation Public Registry. Customers may quickly find and use these public resource types and modules, which eliminates the need for them to construct and maintain them themselves.


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Ques. 15): What is the relationship between the CloudFormation Public Registry and the CloudFormation Registry?

Answer:

When the CloudFormation Registry first launched in November 2019, it had a private listing that allowed customers to customise CloudFormation for their own use. The Public Registry adds a public, searchable, single destination for sharing, finding, consuming, and managing Resource Types and Modules to the CloudFormation Registry, making it even easier to create and manage infrastructure and applications for both AWS and third-party products.


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Ques. 16): Is it possible to handle individual AWS resources within an AWS CloudFormation stack?

Answer:

Yes, you certainly can. CloudFormation does not get in the way; you keep complete control over all aspects of your infrastructure and can continue to manage your AWS resources with all of your existing AWS and third-party tools. We advocate using CloudFormation to manage the modifications to your resources because it can allow for extra rules, best practises, and compliance controls. This method of managing hundreds or thousands of resources across your application portfolio is predictable and regulated.


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Ques. 17): What is the Cost of AWS CloudFormation?

Answer:

Using AWS CloudFormation with resource providers in the AWS::*, Alexa::*, and Custom::* namespaces incurs no additional cost. In this case, you pay the same as if you had manually established AWS resources (such as Amazon EC2 instances, Elastic Load Balancing load balancers, and so on). There are no minimum payments or needed upfront commitments; you only pay for what you use, when you use it.

You will be charged each handler operation if you use resource providers with AWS CloudFormation outside of the namespaces listed above. Create, update, delete, read, or list activities on a resource are handled by handler operations.


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Ques. 18): In a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), can I create stacks?

Answer:

Yes. VPCs, subnets, gateways, route tables, and network ACLs may all be created with CloudFormation, as well as resources like elastic IPs, Amazon EC2 instances, EC2 security groups, auto scaling groups, elastic load balancers, Amazon RDS database instances, and Amazon RDS security groups.


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Ques. 19): Is there a limit on how many templates or layers you can have?

Answer:

See Stacks in AWS CloudFormation quotas for more information on the maximum number of AWS CloudFormation stacks you can construct. Fill out this form to request a higher limit, and we'll get back to you within two business days.


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Ques. 20): Do I have access to the Amazon EC2 instance or the user-data fields in the Auto Scaling Launch Configuration?

Answer:

Yes. Simple functions can be used to concatenate string literals and AWS resource attribute values and feed them to user-data fields in your template. Please see our sample templates for more information on these simple functions.


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